8954856055505db

ارزیابی انفرادی و ترکیبی قابلیت هضم و تخمیر گیاهان شورزی سلمکی ساقه‌سفید، سیاه‌شور و اشنان در شترهای یک کوهانه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری، گروه علوم دامی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، اهواز

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم دامی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، اهواز

3 استادیار پژوهشی، مرکز تحقیقات علوم دامی کشور، کرج

4 استاد، گروه علوم دامی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، اهواز

چکیده

در این مطالعه تخمیر­پذیری سه گونه گیاهی شورزی تحت چرای شترهای تک کوهانه بنام­های سلمکی ساقه سفید، اشنان و سیاه شور به‌صورت انفرادی و با جایگزینی 0، 5/33، 5/66 و 100 درصد با یکدیگر در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی با نه تیمار آزمایشی توسط روش تولید گاز ارزیابی شد. نمونه‏های گیاهی در طول فصل چرای پاییزه و زمستانه از مراتع جنوب استان خوزستان گرد­آوری شدند. جیره‏های مورد بررسی تفاوت معنی‌داری از نظر سرعت و میزان گاز تولید شده داشتند (05/0>P). سلمکی ساقه سفید (T2) به‌طور معنی‌داری کمترین میزان تولید گاز را داشت و در مقابل جیرۀ حاوی 5/66 درصد سیاه شور + 5/33 درصد اشنان (T8) بیشترین میزان تولید گاز را داشت (05/0>P). سلمکی ساقه سفید به‌طور معنی‌داری کمترین و اشنان بیشترین قابلیت هضم حقیقی، مادۀ آلی قابل تخمیر، کل اسیدهای چرب فرار تولیدی، انرژی قابل سوخت‌وساز (متابولیسم) و تولید تودۀ میکروبی را داشتند. کمترین انرژی قابل سوخت‌وساز در تیمار T2مشاهده شد. بازدۀ تولید توده میکروبی در گیاه سلمکی ساقه سفید بالاتر از دیگر جیره‏ها بود و پایین­ترین بازده متعلق به جیرۀ T8 بود. میزان نیتروژن آمونیاکی تولید شده در همۀ جیره‏های مورد بررسی بالاتر از سطح بحرانی آن‌ها بوده و می‌توانند مقادیر کافی از نیتروژن را برای بیشترین تولید تودۀ میکروبی تأمین کنند. بنابراین، گیاه اشنان و جیرۀ T8 بهترین جیره برای تأمین نیازهای مواد مغذی شتر هستند؛ اما با دیدگاه احیاء مرتع، جیره‌های ترکیبی بر­تر از هرکدام از سه گیاه به‌تنهایی هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Individual and combined evaluation of digestibility and fermentation of halophyte plants like Atriplex leucoclada, Suaeda fruticosa and Seidlitzia rosmarinus in dromedary camels

نویسندگان [English]

  • Akbar Abarghani 1
  • Morteza Chaji 2
  • Hormoz Mansori 3
  • Morteza Mamouei 4
  • Khalil Mirzadeh 2
  • Hedayat-ollah Roshanfekr 4
1 Former Ph.D. Student, Department of Animal Science, Khuzestan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 63517-73637, Mollasani, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, Khuzestan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 63517-73637, Mollasani, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Asisstant Professor, Animal Science Research Institute, Karaj, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Animal Science, Khuzestan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 63517-73637, Mollasani, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

In present experiment fermantability of three halophyte species including: Atriplex leucoclada (AL), Suaeda fruticosa (SF) and Seidlitzia rosmarinus (SR) in the form of individually or mixed as 0.0, 33.5 66.5 and 100% with each other (9 diets), were evaluated using a compelet randomized design. These halophyte species were collected from southern rangelands of Khuzestan province during autumn and winter grazing season. The diets were different regarding the rate and amount of gas producedtion (P<0.05). The AL produced lowest but diet containing 66.5 SF+ 33.5 SR (T8) had highest gas production compared with other diets (P<0.05). Diet containing AL and SR respectively had the lowest and highest true OM digestibility, true fermentable OM, total volatile fatty acid, ME and maximum microbial mass production (P<0.05). The fficiency of microbial mass production in AL was the highest and the lowest efficiency was for T8 diet. Concentration of rumen ammonia nitrogen with feeding all diets was higher than its threshold level, so they prepare enogh amount of ammonia nitrogen for maximum. Microbial biomass production. Therefore, diets T5 and T8 were the best diets to provide the nutrients requirements of camels; but from of range improvement poit of view combined diets are preferred than each of the three plants alone. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ammonia nitrogen
  • Gas production
  • Me
  • microbial biomass production
  • NEL
Al-Masri, M. R. (1998). Yield and nutritive value of vetch (Vicia sativa) – barley (Hordeum vulgare) forage under different harvesting regimens. Tropical Grasslands, 32, 201-206.
Al-Masri, M. R. (1999). In vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues an influenced by gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 50, 295-301.
Al-Masri, M. R. (2001). Changes in biogas production due to different ratios of animal and agricultural waste. Bioresource Technology, 77, 97-100.
AL-Masri, M. R. (2003). An in vitroevaluation of some unconventional ruminant feeds in terms of the organic matter digestibility, energy and microbial biomass. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 35, 155-167.
Beever, D. E. (1993). Ruminal animal production from forages-present position and future opportunities. In: M.J. Baker(Ed), Grassland for our World. (p. 158) SIR publishing.
Blummel, M. & Ørskov, E. R. (1993). Comparison of gas production and nylon bag degradability of roughages in predicting feed intake in cattle. Animal Feed Science and Technology,  40, 109–119.
Blummel, M. (1994). Relationship between kinetics of storer fermentation as described by the Hohenheim in vitro gas production test and voluntary feed intake of 54 cereal storers. Ph.D Thesis. Hohenheim University, Germany.
Blummel, M., Makkar, H. P. S. & Becker, K. (1997). In vitro gas production: a technique revisited. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition,77, 24-34.
Broderick, G. A. & Kang, J. H. (1980). Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. Journal of Dairy Science, 63, 64–75.
Danesh Mesgaran, M., Riasi, A. & Stem, M. D. (2004). Chemical composition and in vitro and in situ protein digestibility of some halophytes located in central Iran. In: British Society of Animal Science, 22-24 Mar, York University, York, UK., p. 242.
Dryhurst, N. & Wood, C. D. (1998). The effect of nitrogen source and concentration on in vitro gas production using rumen micro-organisms. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 71, 131-143.
El Shaer, H. M. (2010). HalopHytes and salt-tolerant plants as potential forage for ruminants in the near east region. A Review. Small Ruminant Research, 91, 3-12.
Erdman, R. A., Proctor, G. H. & Vandersall, J. H. (1986). Effect of rumen ammonia concentration on in situ rate and extent of digestion of feed stuffs. Journal of Dairy Science, 69, 2312-2320.
Getachew, G., Blummel, M., Makkar, H. P. S. & Becker, K. (1998a). In vitro gas measuring techniques for assessment of nutritional quality of feeds: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 72, 261-281.
Getachew, G., Makkar, H. P. S. & Becker, K. (1998b). The in vitro gas coupled with ammonia measurement for evaluation of nitrogen degradability in low quality roughages using incubation medium of different buffering capacity. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 77, 87-95.
Getachew, G., Makkar, H. P. S. & Becker, K. (2000). Stoichiometric relationship between short chain fatty acid and in vitro gas production in presence and absence of polyethylene glycol for tannin containing browses, EAAP Satellite Symposium, Gas production: fermentation kinetics for feed evaluation and to assess microbial activity, 18-19 August, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Gomez, C. D., Al- Masri, M. R., Steinberg, W. & Abel, H. J. (1998). Effect of varying hay/ barley proportions on microbial biotin metabolism in the rumen-stimulating-technique RUSITEC. In: Proceedings of Society of Nutrition Physiology, vol. 7, DLG-Verlag, Germany.
Haddi, M. L., Filacorda, S., Meniai, K., Rollin, F. & Susmel, P. (2003). In vitro fermentation kinetics of some halophyte shrubs sampled at three stages of maturity. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 104, 215-225.
Hamilton, J. A. & Webster, M. E. D. (1987). Food intake, water intake, urine output, growth rate and wool growth of lambs accustomed to high or low intake of sodium chloride. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 37, 187-194.
Hristov, A. N., McAllister, T. A., Van Herk, F. H., Cheng, K. J., Newbold, C. J. & Cheeke, P. R. (1999). Effect of Yucca schidigera on ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion in heifers. Journal of Animal Science 77, 2554-2563.
Hume, I. D., Moir, R. G. & Somers, M. (1970). Synthesis of microbial protein in the rumen. I. Influence of the level of nitrogen intake. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 21, 283–296.
Le Houerou, H. N. (1993). Salt tolerant plants for the arid regions of the Mediterranean iso-climatic zone. In: Leith, H., El-Masoom, A.(Eds.), Towards the Rational Use Of high Salinity Tolerant Plants. Kluwer Academic Publications, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 405-411.
Leng, R. A. (1990). Factors affecting the utilization of ‘‘Poor-Quality’’ forages by ruminants particularly under tropical conditions. Nutrition Research Reviews, 3, 277-303.
Makkar, H. P. S. (2005). In vitro gas methods for evaluation of feeds containing phytochemicals. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 123, 291-302.
Masters, D. G., Norman, H. C. & Dynes, R. A. (2001). Opportunity and limitations for animal production from saline land. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 14, 199-211.
Menke, K. H. & Steingass, H. (1988). Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research Development, 28, 7-55.
Menke, K. H., Raab, L., Salewski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D. & Schneider, W. (1979). The estimation of the digestibility and metabolisable energy content of ruminant feeding stuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor. Journal of Agricultural Science, 93, 217-222.
Minson, D. J. (1982). Effect of chemical composition of feed digestibility and metabolizable energy. Nutrition Abstract Review, Series B, 52, 592-615.
Nsahlai, I. V., Siaw, D. E. K. & Osuji, P. O. (1994). The relationships between gas production and chemical composition of 23 browses of the genus Sesbania. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 65, 13-20.
Ørskov, E.R & McDonald, I. (1979). The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science,92, 499-503.
Rossi, R., Del Prete, E., Rokitzky, J. & Scharrer, E. (1998). Effect of high NaCl diet on eating and drinking patterns in Pygmy goats. Physiology & Behavior, 63, 601-604.
Russell, J. B., O'Connor, J. D., Fox, D. G., Van Soest, P. J. & Sniffen, C. J. (1992). A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. 1. Ruminal fermentation. Journal of Animal Science, 70, 3551-3561.
Salem, A. Z. M., Salem, M. Z. M., El-Adawy, M. M. & Robinson, P. H. (2006). Nutritive evaluations of some browse tree foliages during the dry season: secondary compounds, feed intake and in vivo digestibility in sheep and goats. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 127, 251-267.
Samiullah, S. & Asghari Bano, B. (2011). Physiological and biochemical analysis of the elected halophytes of district Mardan, Pakistan. International Journal of Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, 1(4), 239-243.
Sommart, K., Parker, D. S., Rowlinson, P. & Wanapat, M. (2000). Fermentation characteristics and microbial protein synthesis in an in vitro system using cassava, rice straw and dried ruzi grass as substrates. Asian-Australian Journal Animal Science, 13, 1084-1093.
Stern, M. D., Bach, A. & Calsamiglia, S. (2006). New concepts in protein nutrition of ruminants. In: 21st Annual Southwest Nutrition and Management Conference, 23-24 Feb., Tempe, AZ - 45
Theodorou, M. K., Williams, B. A., Dhanoa, M. S., McAllan A.B. & France, J. (1994). A simple gas production method using a pressure transducer to determine the fermentation kinetics of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 48, 7185-197.
Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B. & Lewis, B. A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition, Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3597.
Van Soest, P. J. (1994). Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. (2nd ed.). Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, Ithaca/NY, USA.
Weber, D. J., Ansari, R., Gul, B. & Ajmalkhan, M. (2007). Potential of halophytes as source of edible oil. Journal of Arid Environments, 68, 315-321.
Williams, A. G. & Withers, S. E. (1991). Effect of ciliate protozoa on the activity of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and fibre breakdown in the rumen ecosystem. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 70, 144-155.
Wina, E., Muetzel, S. & Becker, K. (2005). The Impact of Saponins or Saponin-Containing Plant Materials on Ruminant Productions, A Review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 8093-8105.