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اثر راه‌کارهای تغذیه‌ای کاهش سطوح نشاسته بر توان تولیدی، متابولیت‌ها سرمی و عملکرد کبدی در ‏گاوهای هلشتاین تازه‌زا

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشی بخش تحقیقات علوم دامی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان چهارمحال و بختیاری، ‏شهرکرد، ایران

2 استاد، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

3 استادیار، علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

10.22059/ijas.2021.317516.653813

چکیده

هدف از اجرای پژوهش حاضر ارزیابی آثار کاهش درصد نشاسته با حفظ سطح فیبر حاصل از شوینده خنثی در جیره به وسیله جایگزین کردن دانه جو، سیلاژ ذرت و یا هر دو بر ماده خشک مصرفی، عملکرد شیردهی، غلظت متابولیت­ها، شاخص عملکرد کبد (LFI) و شاخص کمی حساسیت به انسولین تجدیدنظرشده (RQUICKI) در جیره گاوهای تازه‌زا بود. سی‌وشش رأس گاو چند بار زایش بر اساس تولید شیر پیشین و امتیاز وضعیت بدنی بلوک‌بندی شدند و به‌طور تصادفی به یکی از 4 تیمار آزمایشی از روز زایش تا 21 روز پس از زایش اختصاص یافتند. جیره‌های آزمایشی یک جیره با سطح نشاسته بالا حاوی دانه جو (CO؛ 9/24 درصد نشاسته و صفر درصد تفاله چغندرقند) و 3 جیره با سطوح نشاسته پایین که در آن‌ها تفاله چغندرقند به‌جای دانه جو آسیاب شده (BB؛ 6/19 درصد نشاسته و 7 درصد تفاله چغندرقند)، سیلاژ ذرت (BC؛ 6/20 درصد نشاسته و 12 درصد تفاله چغندرقند) و مخلوطی از دانه جو و سیلاژ ذرت (BCB؛ 3/20 درصد نشاسته و 12 درصد تفاله چغندرقند) جایگزین شد. ماده خشک مصرفی برای BC (2/1 کیلوگرم در روز) و BCB (1 کیلوگرم در روز) نسبت به گاوهای تیمار CO بالاتر بودند، درحالی‌که در گروه BB پایین‌تر (1/1 کیلوگرم در روز) بود. مطابق با نتایج ماده خشک مصرفی، تولید شیر تمایل داشت تا 5/2 و 4/2 کیلوگرم در گروه BC و BCB نسبت به گروه CO، بالاتر باشد؛ درحالی‌که گاوها در BB 4/2 کیلوگرم در روز شیر کم‌تری نسبت به CO تولید کردند. در مقایسه باCO، گاوهای تغذیه‌شده با BB دارای غلظت سرمی گلوکز پایین­تری بودند، درحالی‌که گاوهای تغذیه‌شده با BC و BCB دارای گلوکز سرم بالاتری بودند. غلظت انسولین سرم برای گاوهای BB کم‌تر از سایر جیره‌های آزمایشی بود. در مقایسه باCO، غلظت سرمی NEFA و BHB برای BC و BCB کم‌تر بود، اما بین BB  و CO مشابه بود. گاوهای COو BC در مقایسه با گاوهای BB، شاخص کمی حساسیت به انسولین تجدید نظر شده پایین‌تری داشتند و گاوهای BCB تمایل به داشتن RQUICKI کم‌تر در مقایسه با BB طی دوره پس‌زایش داشتند. غلظت گاما گلوتامیل ترانسفراز (GGT) در گاوهای BC و BCB نسبت به گاوهای CO و BB پایین‌تر بود. گاوهای تغذیه با CO  و BB، غلظت بیلی‌روبین سرم بیش‌تری نسبت به گاوهای تغذیه‌شده با BC و  BCB داشتند. گاوهای BC دارای شاخص عملکرد کبد بالاتری نسبت به گاوهای BB بودند و تمایل داشتند LFI  بیش‌تری نسبت به گاوهای CO داشته باشند. به‌طورکلی، کاهش نشاسته غذایی با جایگزینی سیلاژ ذرت (BC) یا ترکیبی از سیلاژ ذرت و دانه جو (BCB) در مقایسه با زمانی که تفاله چغندرقند به‌جای دانه جو (BB) به‌منظور کاهش نشاسته استفاده شد منجر به بهبود در ماده خشک مصرفی، تولید شیر، متابولیسم انرژی و عملکرد کبدی در طول 21 روز اول شیردهی گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of feeding strategies to reduce starch levels on performance, serum ‎metabolites and liver function in Holstein fresh cows

نویسندگان [English]

  • Najme Eslamian Farsuni 1
  • Hamid Amanlou 2
  • Tahere Amirabadi Farahani 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Agricultural and Natural‏ ‏Resources Research and ‎Education Center, AREEO, Shahrekord, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
چکیده [English]

The study objective was to evaluate the effects of reducing dietary starch content in fresh cow diets while maintaining NDF levels by substituting barley grain (BG), corn silage (CS), or both with beet pulp (BP) on DMI, lactation performance, serum mineral and metabolites concentrations, liver enzymes and liver functionality index (LFI), serum insulin and revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI). Thirty-six multiparous cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental diets from calving to 21 days in lactation. Experimental diets were a high-starch diet with ground BG (CO; 24.9% starch; 0% BP) and 3 low-starch diets where BP substituted for either BG (BB; 19.6% starch; 7% BP), CS (BC; 20.6% starch; 12% BP) or CS and BG (BCB; 20.3% starch; 12% BP). Relative to CO cows (16.50 kg/d), DMI was greater for BC (17.70 kg/d) and BCB (17.50 kg/d) cows, but it was lesser in BB (15.60 kg/d) cows. Similar to DMI results, milk yields tended to be greater for BC (37.89 kg/d) and BCB cows (37.81 kg/d) compared to CO cows (35.41 kg/d), but BB cows (33.05 kg/d) tended to produce less milk than CO cows. Relative to CO, cows fed BB had lower serum glucose concentrations, whereas cows fed BC and BCB had higher serum glucose. Serum insulin concentrations were lower for BB cows than for other exprimental groups. Relative to CO, serum NEFA and BHB concentrations were lower for BC and BCB, but was similar between BB and CO. The RQUICKI was lower for CO, BC cows than BB cows, and cows in BCB tended to have less RQUICKI compared to BB during postpartum. The concentrations of gamma glutamyl transferase were lower in BC and BCB cows relative to CO and BB cows. The cows fed CO and BB had higher serum bilirubin relative to cows fed BC and BCB diets. Although, LFI for CO cows was similar to cows on BB, BC and BCB, BC cows had higher LFI than BB cows and tended to have greater LFI than CO cows. Overall, reducing dietary starch by replacing CS (BC) or a mix of CS and BG (BCB) with BP positively affected DMI and milk yield and indicated improved energy metabolism and liver function during the first 21 d of lactation compared to when BP was fed instead of BG to reduce starch (BB).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fresh cows
  • low-starch diet
  • non-forage fiber
  • sorum metabolites‎
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