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اثر استفاده از اطلاعات ژنومی گاوهای ماده در جمعیت مرجع، روی صحت ارزش‌های اصلاحی ‏ژنومی برآوردشده در گاوهای هلشتاین ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، پردیس بین‌المللی ارس دانشگاه تهران، جلفا، ایران

2 استاد، گروه علوم دامی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه علوم دامی، دانشگاه گوئلف کانادا

10.22059/ijas.2021.314919.653811

چکیده

ارزیابی‌های دقیق ژنومی به یک جمعیت مرجع بزرگ با اطلاعات عملکردی قابل اعتماد (مانند ارزش‌های اصلاحی پیش‌بینی‌شده) بستگی دارد. هدف از این مطالعه، شناسایی مناسب‌ترین جمعیت مرجع برای پیش‌بینی ارزش اصلاحی ژنومی حیوانات در برنامه‌های اصلاح‌نژاد گاو شیری هلشتاین ایران می‌باشد. ابتدا با استفاده از شبیه‌سازی ژنوم و مطابق با روند اصلاح‌نژاد گاو شیری در ایران (هسته اصلاح‌نژادی باز با تبادل ژنی بین هسته و جمعیت تجاری) جمعیت‌های مورد نیاز شبیه‌سازی شدند. دو سطح وراثت‌پذیری متوسط (3/0) و پایین (05/0) به‌طور مستقل در نظر گرفته شد. در تمام مراحل، فرایند شبیه‌سازی 10 بار تکرار شد و نتایج مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در این مطالعه، گاوهای ماده جهت تعیین ژنوتیپ، بر اساس چهار سناریوی انتخاب تصادفی، افراد دو کران بالا و پایین توزیع ارزش فنوتیپی، افراد با بالاترین ارزش فنوتیپی و افراد با بالاترین ارزش اصلاحی در تعداد مختلف انتخاب و به جمعیت مرجع افزوده شدند. با روش تک‌مرحله‌ای بهترین پیش‌بینی نااُریب خطی (Single Step BLUP)، برای افراد جمعیت آزمون ارزش اصلاحی ژنومی پیش‌بینی شد. برای تمام سناریوهای گفته‌شده، صحت و ضریب نااُریبی پیش‌بینی ارزش اصلاحی برآورد شد. نتایج نشان داد زمانی که حیوانات ماده با بیشترین و کمترین ارزش فنوتیپی (سناریوی دوم تعیین ماده‌ها) انتخاب شدند، نسبت به سایر سناریوها، صحت پیش‌بینی ارزش اصلاحی بیشتر بود. تعیین ماده‌ها با ارزش فنوتیپی بالا (سناریوی سوم انتخاب ماده‌ها)، کمترین اُریبی را به بار آورد. استفاده از نرهای وارداتی دارای ژنوتیپ و استفاده از آنها به تنهایی به عنوان جمعیت مرجع، کمترین صحت و بیشترین اُریبی را نشان داد. ترکیب نرها با ماده‌ها نسبت به سناریوهای صرفاً نرها یا صرفاً ماده‌ها، افزایش صحت و کاهش اُریبی را به همراه داشت، بنابراین با احتساب هزینه‌های اقتصادی، تعیین ژنوتیپ، استفاده از گاوهای ماده در جمعیت مرجع (2000 رأس گاو ماده ژنوتیپ شده)، مطابق با سناریوی دوم انتخاب ماده‌ها، بهترین راهبرد پیشنهادی جهت تشکیل جمعیت مرجع و ارزیابی ژنومی با کمترین هزینه، در ایران می‌باشد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of using cow genomic information in reference population on the accuracy ‎of genomic estimated breeding values in Iranian Holstein cattle

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Mansourian 1
  • Seyed Reza Miraei Ashtiani 2
  • Ardeshir Nejati Javaremi 2
  • Mahdi Sargolzaei 3
1 Ph.D. Cnadidate, Aras International Campus, University of Tehran, Jolfa, Iran‎
2 Professor, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, University of Guelph, Canada
چکیده [English]

Accurate genomic evaluation depend on large reference population with reliable performance information such as predicted breeding value (PBVs). The aim of this study was to identify the most appropriate reference population to predict the genomic breeding value for Iran Holstein dairy breeding programs. Phenotypes and genotypes were simulated based on the dairy cattle Iran population program (open breeding nucleus with gene flows between the nucleus and the commercial population). Medium (0.3) and low (0.05) heritability levels were considered independently. All simulations were performed with 10 replications and the results were evaluated. In the first study, female cows were selected for genotyping in four scenarios: random selection, individuals with upper and lower extremities of phenotypic value, highest phenotypic value and highest breeding value with maximum accuracy; and these females are added to the reference population. Single Step BLUP (SSBLUP) was used to predict the genomic breeding value for individuals in the population. The accuracy and unbiased coefficient of predicted breeding value were investigated. The results showed that when female animals with the highest and lowest phenotypic values were selected (the second scenario of determining females), the highest accuracy of prediction of breeding value was observed compared to other scenarios. Determination of substances with high phenotypic value (third scenario of female selection) showed the least bias. The use of imported males with genotype and their use alone as a reference population showed the least accuracy and the most bias. The combination of males and females showed an increase in accuracy and a decrease in bias compared to the scenarios for males or females alone. However, in relation to the size of the population similar to females, no improvement in the prediction of the breeding value was observed. Therefore, in terms of economic conditions (genotyping costs), the use of only female cows in the reference population (2000 females genotyped), according to the second scenario of female selection, is the best strategy to form a reference population and genomic evaluation at the lowest cost, in Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Genomic breeding value
  • reference population
  • simulation
  • SSBLUP‎
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