8954856055505db

بررسی آثار جایگزینی کنجاله سویا با کنجاله کلزا و فرآوری دانه ذرت بر عملکرد تولیدی گاوهای هلشتاین

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم دامی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

3 استاد، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

4 استاد، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

5 دانشیار، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی آثار جایگزینی کنجاله سویا با کنجاله کلزا و همچنین روش فرآوری دانه ذرت بر عملکرد تولیدی گاوهای پر تولید از 12 رأس گاو شیرده هلشتاین (زایش دوم با میانگین روزهای شیردهی 14±80 و تولید شیر 3±46 کیلوگرم در روز) در قالب طرح مربع لاتین تکرار شونده 4×4 به روش فاکتوریل 2×2 استفاده شد. عامل اول روش فرآوری دانه ذرت شامل آسیاب نرم و پرک‌شده با بخار بود و عامل دوم شامل دو نسبت کنجاله کلزا به کنجاله سویا (50:50 و 100: صفر) در جیره بود. ماده خشک مصرفی، تولید شیر، غلظت ترکیبات شیر و همچنین پارامترهای شکمبه ای تحت تأثیر نوع کنجاله مصرفی در جیره قرار نگرفت. حذف کامل کنجاله سویا در جیره سبب کاهش قابلیت هضم ظاهری ماده خشک گردید. پرک کردن ذرت با بخار سبب کاهش خوراک مصرفی، کاهش درصد چربی شیر، افزایش درصد پروتئین شیر و افزایش غلظت گلوکز خون شد، اما تولید شیر تحت تأثیر قرار نگرفت. اثر متقابل جایگزینی کنجاله سویا با کنجاله کلزا و روش فرآوری دانه ذرت بر پاسخ های عملکردی گاوهای شیری معنی‌دار نبود. استفاده از کنجاله کلزا به‌عنوان جایگزین مناسب کنجاله سویا و همچنین پرک کردن ذرت با بخار به‌علت بهبود راندمان خوراک و اثر مثبت بر متابولیسم نیتروژن و انرژی جهت تغذیه گاوهای پرتولید، قابل توصیه خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of replacement of soybean meal with canola meal and corn processing on ‎productive performance of Holstein dairy cows

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farzad Abdollahzadeh 1
  • Hamid Mohammadzadeh 2
  • Mohammad Khorvash 3
  • Akbar Taghizadeh 4
  • Ali Hosseinkhani 5
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Animal Science, Tabriz University, Tabriz, ‎Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran
5 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of replacement of soybean meal with canola meal and corn processing on productive performance of Holstein dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows (milk yield= 46±3 kg/d) were assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factor 1 was corn processing method, ground corn or steam flaked corn, and factor 2 was two ratio canola meal to soybean meal (50:50 or 100:0). No significant interactions of main treatment effects occurred for lactation performance data. Dry matter intake and milk production was not affected by replacement of soybean meal with canola meal. Milk compounds concentration was not affected by this replacement. Substitution of hundred percent of soybean meal with canola meal in the diet decreased the apparent digestibility of the dry matter. Feed intake was decrease when the cows received steam flaked corn compared with those receiving ground corn. Milk fat content decreased but milk protein content increased in cows fed steam flaked compared with those fed ground corn. Although these results showed no interaction effects of replacement of soybean meal with canola meal and corn processing method on performance, higher canola meal ratio and steam flaked corn improved feed efficiency and has a positive effect on the metabolism of nitrogen and energy, so recommended to fed in high-yielding cows under the conditions of this experiment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Canola meal
  • Corn Processing
  • Holstein cow
  • soybean meal‎
  1. AOAC International. (2002). Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. 1. 17th ed. AOAC International, Arlington, VA.
  2. Beam, S. W. & Butler, W. R. (1999). Effects of energy balance on follicular development and first ovulation in postpartum dairy cows. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. Supplement, 54, 411-24.
  3. Bernard, J., Chandler, P., West, J., Parks, A. Amos, H., Froetschel, M. & Trammell, D. (2004). Effect of supplemental l-lysine-HCl and corn source on rumen fermentation and amino acid flow to the small intestine. Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 399-405.
  4. Brito, A. F. & Broderick, G. A. (2007). Effect of different protein supplements on milk production and nutrient utilization in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 1816-1827.
  5. Broderick, G. A., Faciola, A. P. & Armentano, L. E. (2015). Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 98, 5672-5687.
  6. Broderick, G. & Kang, J. (1980). Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. Journal of Dairy Science, 63, 64-75.
  7. Christen, K. A., Schingoethe, D. J., Kalscheur, K. F., Hippen, A. R., Karges, K. K. & Gibson, M. L. (2010). Response of lactating dairy cows to high protein distiller's grains or 3 other protein supplements. Journal of Dairy Science, 93, 2095-2104.
  8. Cooke, K., Bernard, J. & West, J. (2008). Performance of dairy cows fed annual ryegrass silage and corn silage with steam-flaked or ground corn. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 2417-2422.
  9. Dhiman, T., Zaman, M., MacQueen, I. & Boman, R. (2002). Influence of corn processing and frequency of feeding on cow performance. Journal of Dairy Science, 85, 217-226.
  10. Farmer, E., Tucker, H., Dann, H., Cotanch, K., Mooney, C., Lock, A., Yagi, K. & Grant, R. (2014). Effect of reducing dietary forage in lower starch diets on performance, ruminal characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in lactating Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 97, 5742-5753.
  11. Firkins, J., Eastridge, M., St-Pierre, N. & Noftsger, S. (2001). Effects of grain variability and processing on starch utilization by lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 79, 218-238.
  12. Fisher, L. J. (1976). Evaluation of “Double-Low” rapeseed meal in lactating cow rations. Research on Rapeseed, 4th Progress Report, Research Committee, 40, 117-119.
  13. Gaynor, P., Waldo, D., Capuco, A., Erdman, R., Douglass, L. & Teter, B. (1995). Milk fat depression, the glucogenic theory, and trans-c18: 1 fatty acids. Journal of Dairy Science, 78, 2008-2015.
  14. Guyton, A., McKinney, J. & Knowlton, K. (2003). The effect of steam-flaked or dry ground corn and supplemental phytic acid on phosphorus partitioning and ruminal phytase activity in lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 3972-3982.
  15. Harvatine, D. I. (2000). Effectiveness of Whole Linted Cottonseed as a Forage Substitute: When Fed with Ground of Steam Flaked Corn. M.Sc. thesis, Ohio State University.
  16. Hossayni, F., Daneshmesgaran, M. & mosavi, A. (2012) canola and soya meal resplasment effect on some production in Holestein dairy cow parturition. Research Journal of Animal Science, 4(1), 39-45.
  17. Huhtanen, P., Hetta, M. & Swensson, C. (2011). Evaluation of canolameal as a protein supplement for dairy cows: A review and a metaanalysis. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 91, 529-543.
  18. Joy, M., DePeters, E., Fadel, J. & Zinn, R. (1997). Effects of corn processing on the site and extent of digestion in lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 80, 2087-2097.
  19. Khafipour, E., Krause, D. & Plaizier, J. (2009). A grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis challenge causes translocation of lipopolysaccharide and triggers inflammation. Journal of Dairy Science, 92, 1060-1070.
  20. Khalili, H., Kuusela, E., Suvitie, M. & Huhtanen, P. (2002). Effect of protein and energy supplements on milk production in organic farming. Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology, 98, 103-119.
  21. Martineau, R., Ouellet, D. R. & Lapierre, H. (2013). Feeding canola meal to dairy cows: A meta-analysis on lactational responses. Journal of Dairy Science, 96, 1701–1714.
  22. National Research Council .(2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th Revised Edition. National Academy of Science, Washington, DC, USA.
  23. Nikkhah, A., Alikhani, M. & Amanlou, H. (2004). Effects of feeding ground or steam-flaked broom sorghum and ground barley on performance of dairy cows in mid-lactation. Journal of Dairy Scienc, 87, 122-130.
  24. Piepenbrink, M. S. & Schingoethe, D. J. (1998). Ruminal degradation, amino acid composition, and estimated intestinal digestibilities of four protein supplements. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 454-461.
  25. Rafiee-Yarandi, H., Ghorbani, G., Alikhani, M., Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A. & Drackley, J. (2016). A comparison of the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures versus calcium salts of fatty acids on performance and milk fatty acid composition of mid-lactation Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 99, 5422-5435.
  26. Sanchez, J. M. & Claypool, D. W. (1983). Canola meal as a protein supplement in dairy rations. Journal of Dairy Science, 66, 80-85.
  27. SAS Institute. (2002). User’s Guide: Statistics. Version 9.1. SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC.
  28. Savari, M., Khorvash, M., Amanlou, H., Ghorbani, G. R., Ghasemi, E. & Mirzaei, M. (2018). Effects of rumen-degradable protein: rumen-undegradable protein ratio and corn processing on production performance, nitrogen efficiency, and feeding behavior of Holstein dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 101, 1-12.
  29. Savari, M., Khorvash, M., Amanlou, H., Ghorbani, G. R., Ghasemi, E., Mirzaei, M. & Mohammadi, F. (2017). Effects of the source and level of rumen undegradable protein and corn processing on production performance of dairy cows. Journal of Ruminant Research, 5, 41-56. (in Farsi)
  30. Schwab, C., Whitehouse, N., Luchini, D. & Sloan, B. (2009).  Reevaluation of the breakpoint estimates for the NRC. (2001), required concentrations of lysine and methionine in metabolizable protein for maximal content and yield of milk protein. Journal of Dairy Science, 92, 103-109.
  31. Shen, J., Song, L., Sun, H., Wang, B., Chai, Z., Chacher, B. & Liu, J. (2015). Effects of corn and soybean meal types on rumen fermentation, nitrogen metabolism and productivity in dairy cows. Asian-Australas Journal of Animal Science, 28, 351-359.
  32. Stockdale, C. R. (2007) Effects of body condition score at calving and feeding various types of concentrate7 National Research Council. National Academy of Science, Washington Livestock Science, 116, 191-202.
  33. Theurer, C., Huber, J., Delgado-Elorduy, A. & Wanderley, R. (1999). Invited review: Summary of steam-flaking corn or sorghum grain for lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 82, 1950-1959.
  34. Van Keulen, J. & Young, B. (1977). Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash as a natural marker in ruminant digestibility studies. Journal of Animal Science, 44, 282-287.
  35. Van Soest, P. J. (1994). Mathematical Applications: Digestibility. Nutri. Eco. Rumi. 2nd ed. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY, 354-370
  36. Yansari, A. T., Valizadeh, R., Naserian, A. Christensen, D. Yu, P. & Shahroodi, F. E. (2004). Effects of alfalfa particle size and specific gravity on chewing activity, digestibility, and performance of Holstein dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 3912-3924.
  37. Yu, P., Huber, J., Santos, F., Simas, J. & Theurer, C. (1998). Effects of ground, steam-flaked, and steam-rolled corn grains on performance of lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 777-783.
  38. Zhong, R., Li, J., Gao, Y., Tan, Z. & Ren, G. (2008). Effects of substitution of different levels of steam-flaked corn for finely ground corn on lactation and digestion in early lactation dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 3931-3937.