8954856055505db

اثر منابع مختلف کربوهیدات بر بازدهی استفاده از خیساب مایع ذرت در جیره غذایی در شرایط برون‌تنی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری تغذیه دام، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان

3 استادیار، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان

چکیده

هدف از این تحقیق، بررسی اثر مکمل نمودن خیساب مایع ذرت به عنوان منبع نیتروژن با منابع مختلف کربوهیدرات در جیره غذایی بر تولید گاز، فراسنجه‌های تخمیر، گوارش‌پذیری مواد مغذی و فعالیت آنزیم‌های میکروبی شکمبه در شرایط برون‌تنی بود. از هشت جیره غذایی حاوی منابع مختلف کربوهیدراته (شامل سطوح مخلتف جو، ذرت و ملاس) که در همه آن‌ها از یک سطح ثابت خیساب مایع ذرت در نظر گرفته شده بود (13 درصد ماده خشک)، به عنوان سوبسترای انکوباسیون آزمایشگاهی استفاده گردید. جیره‌های آزمایشی شامل جیره حاوی 1) ذرت، 2) جو، 3) مخلوط جو و ذرت و جایگزینی جیره حاوی مخلوط جو و ذرت به ترتیب با سطوح 4) 5، 5) 10، 6) 15، 7) 20 و 8) 25 درصد ملاس بودند. بیشترین و کمترین میزان تولید گاز در زمان 72 و 96 ساعت انکوباسیون و پتانسیل (b) تولید گاز به ترتیب با انکوباسیون جیره حاوی 15 درصد ملاس و جیره حاوی ذرت به­دست آمد (05/0P<). هرچند، در مورد نرخ تولید گاز (c) و سنتز پروتئین میکروبی بیشترین و کمترین میزان به ترتیب در جیره حاوی 10 و 25 درصد ملاس مشاهده گردید (05/0P<). بیشترین میزان ناپدید شدن ماده خشک شکمبه‌ای با مکمل نمودن خیساب ذرت با سطح 10 درصد ملاس و کمترین میزان آن با انکوباسیون جیره حاوی ذرت به­دست آمد (05/0>P). بیشترین میزان غلظت نیتروژن آمونیاکی با مکمل نمودن خیساب ذرت با سطح 25 درصد ملاس به­دست آمد، اما کمترین میزان آن در جیره حاوی 10 درصد ملاس مشاهده گردید (05/0P<). مکمل نمودن خیساب مایع ذرت با سطح 10 درصد ملاس سبب افزایش فعالیت آنزیم‌های کربوکسی متیل سلولاز و میکروکریستالین سلولاز در مقایسه با سایر تیمارهای آزمایشی شد (05/0>P). بیشترین میزان فعالیت تجزیه کاغذ صافی در تیمار حاوی خیساب ذرت مکمل شده با سطح 5 درصد ملاس و کمترین میزان آن در تیمار حاوری 25 درصد ملاس حاصل گردید (05/0>P). در کل، نتایج نشان داد که مکمل نمودن جیره غذایی خیساب ذرت مایع با سطح 10 درصد ملاس سبب بهبود هضم و تخمیر و متابولیسم نیتروژن در شرایط برون‌تنی شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different dietary carbohydrate sources on in vitro utilization efficiency of corn steep liquor

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parmis Zahedi Moghadam 1
  • Arash Azarfar 2
  • Ayoub Azizi 3
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agricuture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agricuture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agricuture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of supplementing corn steep liquor (CSL), as a nitrogen source, with different dietary carbohydrate sources on in vitro gas production, fermentation parameters, digestibility and activity of rumen microbial enzymes of male lamb's diets. The 8 experimental diets contained different energy sources (including different levels of barley, corn and molasses), in which a constant level of CSL was used (13% of diet dry matter (DM)), incubated in vitro. Experimental diets were 1) corn, 2) barley, 3) mixture of corn/barley and replacing the former with4) 5, 5) 10, 6) 15, 7) 20 and 8) 25% molasses. The maximum and minimum gas production at 72 and 96 (h) of incubation, and potential of gas production (b) were obtained by incubation of diet containing15% molasses and corn diets, respectively (P<0.05). However, the greatest and lowest values for fractional rate of gas production (c) and microbial protein synthesiswere observed in the diets containing 10 and 25% molasses, respectively (P<0.05). The concentration of NH3-N was greatest by supplementing CSL with 25% molasses, while it was lowest in the diet containing 10% molasses (P<0.05). The addition 10% molasses along with CSL increased the activity of carboxymethyle cellulase and microcrystalline cellulase compared with the other treatments (P<0.05). The highest activity of filter paper-degrading (FDP) was obsereved with the diet in which CLS was supplemented with 5% molasses, while supplementing CSL conating diet with 25% molasses led to the lowest FPD activity (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of present study showed that supplementing CSL containing diet with 10% of molasses improved nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and nitrogen metabolism in vitro.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corn steep liquor
  • digestibility
  • Enzyme activity
  • Fermentation
  • grains
  • molasses
  1. Agarwal, N., Agarwal, I., Kamra, D. N. & Chaudhary, L. C. (2000). Diurnal variations in the activities of hydrolytic enzymes in different fractions of rumen contents of Murrah buffalo. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 18, 73-80.
  2. Agricultural and Food Research Council. (1992). Technical committee on responses of nutrients, Report No 9. Nutritive requirements of ruminant animal: Protein. Nutrition Abstract and Review. Series b, 62(12), 787-835, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon.
  3. AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
  4. Araba, A., Byers, F. M. & Guessous, F. (2002). Patterns of rumen fermentation in bulls fed barley/molasses diets. Animal feed Science and Technology, 97, 53-64.
  5. Azizi-Shotorkhoft, A., Rezaei, J., & Fazaeli, H. (2013). The effect of different levels of molasses on the digestibility, rumen parameters and blood metabolites in sheep fed processed broiler litter. Animal feed science and Technology, 179, 69-76.
  6. Azizi-Shotorkhoft, A., Rouzbehan, Y. & Fazaeli, H.) 2012). The influence of the different carbohydrate sources on utilization efficiency of processed broiler litter in sheep. Livestock Science, 148, 249-254.
  7. Azizi-Shotorkhoft, A., Sharifi, A., Mirmohammadi, D., Baluch-Gharaei, H. & Rezaei, J. (2015). Effects of feeding different levels of corn steep liquor on the performance of fattening lambs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 100, 109-117.
  8. Besharati, M., Shafipour, N., Abdi, E. & Nemati, Z. (2018). Effects of supplementation alfalfa silage with molasses, orange pulp and Lactobacillus buchneri on in vitro dry matter digestibility and gas production. Journal of BioScience and Biotechnology, 6, 43-47.
  9. Blasel, H. M., Hoffman, P. C. & Shaver, R. D. (2006). Degree of starch access: An enzymatic method to determine starch degradation potential of corn grain and corn silage. Animal feed Science and Technology, 128, 96-107.
  10. Blümmel, M., Steingss, H. & Becker, K. (1997). The relationship between in vitro gas production, in vitro microbial biomass yield and 15N incorporation and its implications for the prediction of voluntary feed intake of roughages. British Journal of Nutrition, 77, 911-921.
  11. Brannon, W. F., Reid, J. T. & Miller, J. I. (1954). The influence of certain factors upon the digestibility and intake of pasture herbage by beef steers. Journal of Animal Science, 13, 535-542.
  12. Broderick, G. & Kang, J. H. (1980). Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. Journal of Dairy Science, 63, 64-75.
  13. Broderick, G. A. & Radloff, W. J. (2004). Effect of molasses supplementation on the production of lactating dairy cows fed diets based on alfalfa and corn silage. Journal of Dairy Science, 87(9),
    2997-3009.
  14. Callison, S. L., Firkins, J. L., Eastridge, M. L. & Hull, B. L. (2001). Site of nutrient digestion by dairy cows fed corn of different particle sizes or steam-rolled. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 1458-1467.
  15. Chamberlain, D. G., Robertson, S. & Choung, J. J. (1993). Sugars versus starch as supplements to grass silage: effects on ruminal fermentation and the supply of microbial protein to the small intestine, estimated from the urinary excretion of purine derivatives in sheep. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture, 63, 189-194.
  16. Getachew, G., Makkar, H. P. S. & Becker, K. (2002). Tropical browses: contents of phenolic compounds, in vitro gas production and stoichiometric relationship between short chain fatty acid and in vitro gas production. Journal of Agricultural Science, 139, 341-352.
  17. Hatch, C. F. & Beeson, W. M. (1972). Effect of different levels of cane molasses on nitrogen and energy utilization in urea rations for steers. Journal of Animal Science, 35, 854-858.
  18. Huhtanen, P. (1988). The effects of barley, unmolested sugar-beet pulp and molasses supplements on organic matter, nitrogen and fiber digestion in the Rumen of cattle given a silage diet. Animal feed Science and Technology, 20, 259-278.
  19. Kamra, D. N., Agarwal, N. & McAllister, T. A. (2010). Screening for compounds enhancing fiber degradation. In: P.E.Vercoe, Makkar HPS, A.C Schlink (Ed). In: In Vitro screening of plant resources for extra-nutritional attributes in ruminants: nuclear and related methodologies, Chapter 6. Dordrecht (the Netherlands): IAEA, 87-107.
  20. Kondo, M., Kita, K. &Yokota, H. O. (2004). Effects of tea leaf waste of green tea, oolong tea, and black tea addition on sudangrass silage quality and in vitro gas production. Journal of Science Food Agricalture, 84, 721-727.
  21. Marten, G. C. & Barnes, R. F. (1980). Prediction of energy digestibility of forages with in vitro rumen fermentation and fungal enzymes systems. In: Pidgen, W. J., Balch, C. C. & Graham, M. (Eds), Standardization of analytical methodology for feeds. (pp. 61-71.) International Development Research Center, Ottawa.
  22. McDonald, I. (1981). A revised model for the estimation of protein degradability in the rumen. Journal of Agricultural Science, 96, 251-252.
  23. McDonald, P., Edwards, R. A., Greenhalgh, J. F. D., Morgan, C. A., Sinclair, L. A. & Wilkinson, R. G. (2011). Animal Nutrition. (7th ed). Longman Group UK, Harlow, UK, P-693.
  24. Menke, K. H. (1988). Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development, 28, 7-55.
  25. Menke, K. H. & Steingass, H. (1987). Estimate of the energetic feed value from the in vitro rumen juice with certain gas formation and the chemical analysis II regression equations. Ubers Tierernahrg, 15, 59-94.
  26. Miller, J. L. (1959). Modified DNS method for reducing sugars. Analytical Chemistry, 31, 426-429.
  27. Nagadi, S., Herrero, M. & Jessop, N. S. (2000). The influence of diet of the donor animal on the initial bacterial concentration of ruminal fluid and in vitro gas production degradability parameters. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 87, 231-239.
  28. Nasir, T., Sarwar, M., Ahmad, F., Tipu, M. A. & Hussain, I. (2012). Influence of substitution of concentrate with molasses and corn steep liquor on nutrient intake, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency of buffalo calves. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 22, 296-300.
  29. Neethling, K. E. (2016). The effect of different energy and nitrogen sources on in vitro fibre digestion and gas production kinetics of high and low quality forages. Ph.D. thesis. Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch University, Sout Africa.
  30. NRC. )2007(. Nutrient requirements of small ruminants: sheep, goats, cervide, and new world camelids. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC., USA, p. 362.
  31. Oba, M. (2011). Review: Effects of feeding sugars on productivity of lactating dairy cows. Canadainan Journal of Animal Science,91, 37-46.       
  32. Offner, A., Bach, A. & Sauvant, D. (2003). Quantitative review of in situ starch degradation in the rumen. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 106, 81-93.
  33. Raghuvansi, S. K. S., Prasad, R., Tripathi, M. K. & Mishra, A. S. (2007). Effect of complete feed blocks or grazing and supplementation of lambs on performance, nutrient utilization, and rumen fermentation and rumen microbial enzymes. Animal, 1, 221-226.
  34. Richardson, J. M., Wilkison, R .G. & Sinclair, L. A. (2003). Synchrony of nutrient supply to the rumen and dietary energy source and their effects on the growth and metabolism of lambs. Journal of Animal Science, 81, 1332-1347.
  35. Sahoo, B. & Walli, T. K. (2008). Effects of formaldehyde treated mustard cake and molasses supplementation on nutrient utilization, microbial protein supply and feed efficiency in growing kids. Animal Feed Science Technology,142, 220-230.
  36. Shellito, S. M., Ward, M. A., Lardy, G. P., Bauer, M. L. & Caton J. S. (2006). Effects of concentrated separator by-product (desugared molasses) on intake, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and microbial efficiency in beef steers fed grass hay. Journal of Animal Science,84, 1535-1543.
  37. Tilly, J. M. A. & Terry, R. A. (1963). A two stage technique for in vitro digestion of forage crops. Journal of the British Grassland Society, 18, 104-111.
  38. Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B. & Lewis, A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3597.
  39. Wiedmeier, R., Tanner, B., Bair, J., Shenton, H., Arambel, M. & Walters, J. (1992). Effects of a new molasses byproduct. Concentrated separator byproduct, on nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation in cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 70, 1936-1940.
  40. Yu, P., Goelema, J. O. & Leury, B. J.  (2002). An analysis of the nutritive value of heat processed legume seeds for animal production using the DVE/OEB model: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 99, 141-176.