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اثر یونجه‌خشک به‌عنوان جاذب پساب بر کیفیت و تولید پساب در ذرت سیلوشده و عملکرد گاوهای شیرده

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم دام و طیور، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد، گروه علوم دام و طیور، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار، گروه علوم دام و طیور، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

4 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم دام و طیور، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

هدف، مطالعه اثرات یونجه­خشک به­عنوان جاذب رطوبت بر تخمیر و تولید پساب در ذرت سیلوشده و عملکرد گاوهای تغذیه­شده با آن بود. علوفه ذرت با ماده خشک 22 درصد برداشت و با صفر، پنج و 10 درصد یونجه ­خشک بر حسب وزن تر در سیلوهای زمینی ذخیره شد. با افزایش درصد یونجه، پساب سیلوها و pH، الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی و کربوهیدرات­های محلول در آب کاهش اما ماده خشک سیلوها به­صورت خطی افزایش یافت (05/0P<). در آزمایش عملکردی که روی نه راس گاو شیری اواخر شیردهی در قالب طرح مربع لاتین ناقص تکرارشده در دو دوره و با سه تیمار فوق انجام شد، مصرف مواد مغذی و قابلیت هضم ظاهری آنها و نیز تولید و ترکیب شیر تحت تأثیر تیمارها قرار نگرفت. با این حال، قابلیت هضم ماده آلی با افزایش سطح جاذب به صورت خطی افزایش یافت. کل فعالیت جویدن و خوردن بین تیمارها مشابه اما کل زمان نشخوار و زمان جویدن، نشخوار به­ازای هر کیلوگرم ماده خشک مصرفی با افزایش درصد جاذب به صورت خطی کاهش یافت. غلظت کل اسیدهای چرب فرّار و pH شکمبه تحت تأثیر تیمارها نبود. طبق نتایج، استفاده از یونجه­خشک ضمن حفظ کیفیت ذرت سیلوشده و عملکرد گاوهای شیری اثر معنی­داری در کاهش تولید پساب داشت، لذا به­عنوان یک جاذب مؤثر پساب در سیلوی علوفه ذرت نابالغ توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of alfalfa hay as a moisture absorbent on fermentation quality and effluent production in corn silage and performance of dairy cows

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jaber Khani 1
  • Ali Akbar Khadem 2
  • Ali Assadi-Alamouti 3
  • Mohsen Sahraei belverdy 4
1 Former M. Sc. Student, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, Campus of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, Campus of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, Campus of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Iran
4 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, Campus of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The objectives were to evaluate effects of adding alfalfa hay (AH) as moisture absorbent to corn forage upon ensiling on silage fermentation, effluent production and performance of late lactating Holstein cows. Corn forage with the initial dry matter content of 22%, left untreated or ensiled with 5 and 10% AH, on a fresh weight basis, for 90 days. Silage DM linearly increased, while effluent production, pH, NDF and water-soluble carbohydrates concentration linearly decreased as AH inclusion rate increased (P<0.05). An incomplete 2×3 Latin square experiment with nine late lactating Holstein cows consuming the above-mentioned silages  showed similar nutrient intake and milk production and composition while a linear increase in organic matter digestibility  with AH inclusion (P<0.05). Total chwing and eating times were unaffected, however, chewing and ruminating time spent /kg DM linearly decreased as AH inclusion rate increased (P<0.05). Ruminal pH and concentrations of VFA were similar across treatments. Results showed a strong effect of AH on reducing effluent from immature corn silage without having an adverse effect on silage fermentation and dairy cows’ performance. Using AH for controlling of effluent from corn silage is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dairy cow
  • digestibility
  • Feed intake
  • forage maturity
  • moisture absorbent
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