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تأثیر جایگزینی بخشی از یونجه با تفالۀ چغندر، کاه بدون فرآوری و فراوری‌شده بر عملکرد گاوهای شیری پرتولید

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان

2 استادیار گروه علوم دامی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان

3 دانشیار گروه علوم دامی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان

چکیده

در این پژوهش، تأثیر جایگزینی بخشی از یونجۀ جیرۀ غذایی با پسماندهای جانبی پر الیاف (تفاله و کاه) بر عملکرد گاوهای شیرده پرتولید بررسی شد. شمار هشت رأس ﮔﺎو هلشتاین پرتولید (5/2±54 کیلوگرم شیر) در قالب ﻃﺮح ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻻﺗﯿﻦ 4×4 به چهار جیرۀ­ آزمایشی اختصاص یافتند. جیره­های آزمایشی حاوی میزان ثابتی ذرت سیلویی (سیلاژ) (2/19%) با نسبت متفاوتی از 1) 2/19% یونجه، 2) 8/3% یونجه، 8/5% کاه گندم و 8/5% تفالۀ چغندر (کاه-تفاله)، 3) 8/3% یونجه و 5/8% کاه (کاه) و 4) 8/3% یونجه و 2/10% کاه فراوری‌شده بودند. سطح انرژی، پروتئین و الیاف (peNDF) در همۀ جیره­ها یکسان بود، ولی الیاف هضم­نشده (uNDF) در جیره­های حاوی تفاله-کاه و کاه فراوری‌شده کمتر بود. نتایج نشان داد، جایگزینی یونجه با کاه-تفاله یا کاه فراوری‌شده منجر به افزایش گوارش­پذیری شد (01/0>P). همچنین، خوراک مصرفی در گاوهای تغذیه‌شده با منبع‌های الیافی جایگزین بیشتر از گاوهای تغذیه‌شده با جیرۀ شاهد بود (01/0>P). تولید شیر و ترکیب‌های شیر تحت تأثیر جیره­های آزمایشی قرار نگرفت. از همین رو، کارایی تولید شیر خام با تغذیۀ جیرۀ شاهد تمایل (08/0=P) به افزایش داشت. کارایی تولید شیر تصحیح‌شده برای چربی بین تیمارهای آزمایشی اختلافی نداشت. تغذیه با منبع‌های الیافی مختلف تأثیری بر  pHشکمبه، اسیدهای چرب فرّار و رفتار جویدن نداشت، اما نسبت استات:پروپیونات (06/0=P) را افزایش داد. جایگزینی بخشی از یونجه با کاه با/بدون تفاله منجر به افزایش گوارش­پذیری و خوراک مصرفی شد ولی کارایی شیر خام تولیدی تمایل به کاهش داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of substituting alfalfa hay with beet pulp, treated and untreated wheat straw on performance of high-producing dairy cows

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Mehdi Hajmahmoodi 1
  • Ebrahim Ghasemi 2
  • Mohammad Khorvash 3
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this study, the effectsof partial substitution of alfalfa hay (AH) with high fiber by-products (wheat straw: WS, beet pulp: BP) were evaluated on performance of high producing dairy cows. Eight high yielding cows (54±2.5 kg milk production) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed 4 experimental diets. The 4 experimental diets contained constant level of corn silage (19.2%) with different proportions of 1) 19.2% alfalfa hay (CON), 2) 3.8% AH, 5.8% WS, 5.8% BP (WS-BP), 3) 3.8% AH, 8.5% WS (WS) and 4) 3.8% AH and 10.2% treated WS (TWS). Diets were similar in of NEL, CP, and NDF contents but WS-BP and TWS diets had lower undigested NDF (uNDF) level. Results indicated replacement of AH with high fiber sources increased nutrient digestibilities (P < 0.01). Moreover, cows received by-products substitutes showed greater dry matter intake than control cows (P<0.01). Milk yield and milk composition did not differ across treatments. Therefore, this resulted in a tendency for improved milk production efficiency (P=0.08) with feeding CON diet. Efficiency of 3.5% FCM was similar among different diets. Feeding different by-products diets had no effect on ruminal pH, total VFA concentration, and chewing behavior, but tended to increase acetate: propionate ratio (P=0.06). Substituting wheat straw with/without beet pulp for alfalfa hay resulted in improved DM and digestibility but reduced milk production efficiency in high-producing dairy cows.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Beet pulp
  • economic return
  • undigested fiber
  • wheat straw
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