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بررسی ساختار جمعیت و شناسایی نواحی تحت انتخاب در ژنگان اسب‌های کرد و عرب ایرانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم دامی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم دامی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

3 استاد، گروه علوم دامی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

4 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم دامی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

اسب عرب از قدیمی­ترین نژادهای اسب جهان است. این نژاد عملکرد بسیار خوبی در مسابقات استقامتی و به‌طورکلی عملکرد ورزشی داشته و در تشکیل برخی نژادهای مهم جهان نقش داشته است. در مقابل، اسب کرد که بیشتر در زمین‌های ناهموار و مناطق کوهستانی زندگی می­کند، مناسب سواری در مناطق کوهستانی و مسابقات چوگان است. برای بررسی ساختار جمعیت و شناسایی قطعه‌های کروموزمی تحت انتخاب در این دو جمعیت، از 38 اسب عرب و 58 اسب کرد نمونۀ خون و مو گرفته شد. نمونه­ها پس از استخراج DNA، توسط 670K Axiom Equine Genotyping Array تعیین نژادگان (ژنوتیپ) شدند. تحلیل مؤلفه­های اصلی (PCA) روی داده‌های به‌دست‌آمده از تعیین نژادگان انجام شد؛ سپس آمارۀ Fst برای هر SNP محاسبه و برای جلوگیری از اثر تنوع تصادفی ذاتی Fst محاسبه‌شده برای تک SNP، آن­ها در طول هر کروموزوم همگن شدند. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از تحلیل مؤلفه­های اصلی این دو جمعیت نشان داد اسب­های عرب ایرانی نسبت به اسب­های کرد تنوع ژنتیکی بالاتری دارند. در این تحقیق، نشانه­های انتخاب در شش جایگاه ژنگانی (ژنومی) شناسایی شد که بالاترین میزان آمارۀ Fst در کروموزم شماره 8 مشاهده شد. حاشیه­نویسی جایگاه­های تحت انتخاب منجر به شناسایی ژن­هایی همانند ژن­های CaMKK2، ATP2A2 و MLXIP شد، که به‌احتمال با عملکرد در مسابقات استقامتی و­ به‌طورکلی عملکرد ورزشی در اسب­ها مرتبط هستند و برای بررسی‌های بیشتر پیشنهاد می­شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating population structure and identifying signatures of selection in Iranian Kurdish and Arabian horses

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saber Mohammad Maghsoodi 1
  • Hassan Mehrabani Yeganheh 2
  • Ardeshir Nejati Javaremi 3
  • Navid Yousefi Mashouf 4
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Animal Science, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Animal Science, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Animal Science, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The Arab horse breed is one of the most ancient horse breeds. Arabian horses are famous for endurance riding and flat racing. Moreover, this breed has contributed to the formation of some of the most important horse breeds in the world. Kurdish horses are found in rough terrain and hilly regions and they are suitable for riding in hilly areas and Polo tournament. To investigate the population structure and to find the signatures of  selection in the genome of Arabian and Kurdish horses, blood and hair samples from 38 Arabian and 58 Kurdish horses were taken and genotyped using the 670K Axiom Equine Genotyping Array. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out on the genotypic data and Fst statistic for each SNP was calculated. Fst values were smoothed over each chromosome. PCA showed that the Arabian horse population is more genetically diverse than the Kurdish horses. We identified six genomic regions showing signatures of selection. The strongest signal of selection was found in ECA8. Annotation of the regions of the genome that showed selection signatures revealed candidate genese.g. CaMKK2, MLXIP and ATP2A2 that may involve in endurance riding and racing. These genes for further studies are proposed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arabian horse breed
  • Genetic diversity
  • Kurdish horse breed
  • selection signatures
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