8954856055505db

تأثیر تغذیة منابع مختلف چربی بر عملکرد رشد، شاخص‌های خونی و شکمبه‌ای گوساله‌های پرواری نر هلشتاین

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکدة کشاورزی و منابع ‌طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکدة کشاورزی و منابع ‌طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

هدف از این تحقیق بررسی تأثیر جایگزینی سطوح مختلف چربی و انواع مکمل‌های­ آن به‌جای منابع نشاسته­ای جیره بر عملکرد رشد، تخمیر شکمبه­ای و شاخص­های خونی در تغذیة گوساله­های نر پرواری هلشتاین بود. در این آزمایش 28 رأس گوسالة نر پرواری هلشتاین  Kg BW)9/31±274) در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی به مدت صد روز با چهار جیرة غذایی (1- سطح بالای چربی اشباع‌شده، 2- سطح پایین چربی اشباع‌شده، 3- سطح بالای چربی غیراشباع، 4- سطح پایین چربی غیراشباع) تغذیه شدند. جیره­ها صورت هم‌انرژی و هم‌پروتئین ترکیب و مخلوط (فرموله) شدند. شاخص­های عملکردی مربوط به مصرف خوراک روزانه و تغییرپذیری وزن بدن به‌صورت روزانه محاسبه شد. نتایج مربوط به تغییر وزن روزانه، وزن نهایی، مصرف خوراک روزانه و ضریب تبدیل غذایی تفاوتی را میان تیمارها نشان ندادند. شاخص­های شکمبه­ای و خونی نیز اندازه‌گیری شدند و بین میانگین تیمارها تفاوت معنی‌داری دیده نشد، غیر از سطح کلسترول خون که در تیمارها با سطح چربی بالا میزان بالاتری (05/0P<) داشت. درنهایت با توجه به شاخص­های اندازه‌گیری‌شده مشخص شد که با در نظر گرفتن هزینة نهایی جیره­ها و دسترسی به مواد خوراکی مختلف می­توان از پودر چربی برای تأمین انرژی جیرة پرواری استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of different sources of Fat supplement on growth performance, blood metabolites and ruminal parameters

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahpour Kheirabadi 1
  • Mehdi Dehghan-banadaky 2
  • Mehdi Ganjkhanlou 2
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of starch sources replacement by fat supplements on growth performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolite parameters of Holstein young bulls. 28 Holstein young bulls (274±31 Kg BW) were fed with four diets containing 1) diet with high level of saturated fat supplement 2) diet with low level of saturated fat supplement 3) diet with high level of unsaturated fat supplement and 4) low level of unsaturated fat supplement for in completely randomized design duration about 100 days. Diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Body weight changes and dry mater intake, were measured montly and daily repectively. Daily body weight gain, final weight, DMI and feed conversation rate were not different between treatments. Individual volatile fatty acids concentration not affected by treatments. Blood metabolite parameter were measured and there was no significant effect observed between treatments except for total cholesterol which in diets with high level of crude fat (6.9%) was grater (p<0.05) than diets with low level of crude fat (3.8%). Finally, based on the results, it can be concluded that fatty acids supplements can be used as an energy source in feedlot farms in shortage of grain.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • fat supplement
  • feedlot steers
  • starch
  1. Abuelfatah, K., Zuki, A., Goh, Y. & Sazili, A. (2013). Effects of dietary N-3 fatty acids on growth performance, apparent digestibility and carcass characteristics of crossbred boer goat under tropical conditions. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 8(6), 775-785.
  2. Allen, M. S. (2000). Effects of diet on short-term regulation of feed intake by lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 83(7), 1598-1624.
  3. AOAC. (1990). Official methods of analysis (15th Edition ed).
  4. Benson, J. & Reynolds, C. (2001). Effects of abomasal infusion of long-chain fatty acids on splanchnic metabolism of pancreatic and gut hormones in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 84(6), 1488-1500.
  5. Bindel, D., Drouillard, J., Titgemeyer, E., Wessels, R & Löest, C. (2000). Effects of ruminally protected choline and dietary fat on performance and blood metabolites of finishing heifers. Journal of Animal Science, 78(10), 2497-2503.
  6. Bock, B., Harmon, D., Brandt, R. & Schneider, J. (1991). Fat source and calcium level effects on finishing steer performance, digestion, and metabolism. Journal of Animal Science, 69(5), 2211-2224.
  7. Brandt, R. & Anderson, S. (1990). Supplemental fat source affects feedlot performance and carcass traits of finishing yearling steers and estimated diet net energy value. Journal of Animal Science, 68(8), 2208-2216.
  8. Colenbrander, V., Noller, C. & Grant, R. (1991). Effect of fiber content and particle size of alfalfa silage on performance and chewing behavior. Journal of Dairy Science, 74(8), 2681-2690.
  9. Domingues, J. L. Nuñez, A. J. C. Gomes, R. C. Valinote, A. C. Silva, S. L. Pereira, A. S. C. ... & Nogueira Filho, J. C. M. (2015). Effect of high oil corn in the diets of Nellore steers on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and longissimus muscle fatty acid profile. Livestock Science, 174, 31-38.
  10. Erickson, P. Murphy, M. & Clark, J. (1992). Supplementation of dairy cow diets with calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids and nicotinic acid in early lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, 75(4), 1078-1089.
  11. Espinoza, J., Ramirez-Godinez, J., Simental, S., Jiménez, J., Ramirez, R., Palacios, A. & De Lun, R. (1997). Effects of calcium soaps of fatty acids on serum hormones and lipid metabolites in Pelibuey ewes. Small Ruminant Research, 26(1), 61-68.
  12. Felton, E. & Kerley, M. (2004). Performance and carcass quality of steers fed different sources of dietary fat. Journal of Animal Science, 82(6), 1794-1805.
  13. Firkins, J., Eastridge, M., St-Pierre, N. & Noftsger, S. (2001). Effects of grain variability and processing on starch utilization by lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 79(E-Suppl), E218-E238.
  14. Ganjkhanlou, M., Rezayazdi, K., Ghorbani, G., Banadaky, M. D., Morraveg, H. & Yang, W. (2009). Effects of protected fat supplements on production of early lactation Holstein cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 154(3), 276-283.
  15. Ghafari, H., Rezaeian, M., Sharifi, S. D., Khadem, A. A. & Afzalzadeh, A. (2016). Effects of dietary sesame oil on growth performance and fatty acid composition of muscle and tail fat in fattening Chaal lambs. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 220, 216-225.
  16. Ghoorchi, T., Gharabash, A. & Torbatinejad, N. (2006). Effects of calcium salt of long chain fatty acid on performance and blood metabolites of atabay lambs. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 1(1), 70-75.
  17. Grummer, R. (1996). Strategies for successful fat supplementation. Paper presented at the Western Canadian Dairy Seminar (USA).
  18. Grummer, R. & Carroll, D. (1991). Effects of dietary fat on metabolic disorders and reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 69(9), 3838-3852.
  19. Gudla, P., AbuGhazaleh, A., Ishlak, A. & Jones, K. (2012). The effect of level of forage and oil supplement on biohydrogenation intermediates and bacteria in continuous cultures. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 171(2), 108-116.
  20. Harvatine, K. & Allen, M. (2006a). Effects of fatty acid supplements on feed intake, and feeding and chewing behavior of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 89(3), 1104-1112.
  21. Harvatine, K. & Allen, M. (2006b). Effects of fatty acid supplements on ruminal and total tract nutrient digestion in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 89(3), 1092-1103.
  22. He, M., McAllister, T., Hernandez-Calva, L., Aalhus, J., Dugan, M. & McKinnon, J. (2014). Effect of dietary inclusion of triticale dried distillers' grain and oilseeds on quality and fatty acid profile of meat from feedlot steers. Meat Science, 97(1), 76-82.
  23. Hegsted, D., McGandy, R., Myers, M. & Stare, F. (1965). Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 17, 281-295.
  24. Invernizzi, G., Modina, S., Corbani, D., Bronzo, V., Pisani, L. F., Caputo, J. M., ... & Savoini, G. (2016). Hepatic and subcutaneous adipose tissue variations in transition dairy goats fed saturated or unsaturated fat supplemented diets. Small Ruminant Research, 144, 211-219.
  25. Karami, M., Ponnampalam, E. & Hopkins, D. (2013). The effect of palm oil or canola oil on feedlot performance, plasma and tissue fatty acid profile and meat quality in goats. Meat science, 94(2), 165-169.
  26. Keys, A., Anderson, J. T. & Grande, F. (1965). Serum cholesterol response to changes in the diet: IV. Particular saturated fatty acids in the diet. Metabolism, 14(7), 776-787.
  27. Krehbiel, C., McCoy, R., Stock, R., Klopfenstein, T., Shain, D. & Huffman, R. (1995). Influence of grain type, tallow level, and tallow feeding system on feedlot cattle performance. Journal of Animal Science, 73(10), 2916-2921.
  28. Litherland, N., Thire, S., Beaulieu, A., Reynolds, C., Benson, J. & Drackley, J. (2005). Dry matter intake is decreased more by abomasal infusion of unsaturated free fatty acids than by unsaturated triglycerides. Journal of Dairy Science, 88(2), 632-643.
  29. Lucy, M., Staples, C., Thatcher, W., Erickson, P., Cleale, R., Firkins, J., ... Brodie, B. (1992). Influence of diet composition, dry-matter intake, milk production and energy balance on time of post-partum ovulation and fertility in dairy cows. Animal Production, 54(03), 323-331.
  30. NRC. (1996). Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. Seventh Revised ED. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.
  31. Pouzo, L., Fanego, N., Santini, F. J., Descalzo, A. & Pavan, E. (2015). Animal performance, carcass characteristics and beef fatty acid profile of grazing steers supplemented with corn grain and increasing amounts of flaxseed at two animal weights during finishing. Livestock Science, 178, 140-149.
  32. Seabrook, J., Peel, R. & Engle, T. (2011). The effects of replacing dietary carbohydrate with calcium salts of fatty acids on finishing lamb feedlot performance, blood metabolites, muscle fatty acid composition, and carcass characteristics. Small Ruminant Research, 95(2), 97-103.
  33. Sklan, D., Kaim, M., Moallem, U. & Folman, Y. (1994). Effect of dietary calcium soaps on milk yield, body weight, reproductive hormones, and fertility in first parity and older cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 77(6), 1652-1660.
  34. Sukhija, P. S. & Palmquist, D. (1990). Dissociation of calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids in rumen fluid. Journal of Dairy Science, 73(7), 1784-1787.
  35. Van Soest, P., Roberston, J. & Lewis, B. (1991). Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3593.
  36. Wilson, P. N. & Osbourn, D. F. (1960). Compensatory growth after under nutrition in mammals and birds. Biological Reviews, 35, 324-363.
  37. Weiss, W., Pinos-Rodríguez, J. & Wyatt, D. (2011). The value of different fat supplements as sources of digestible energy for lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 9, 931-939, (2) 4.
  38. Zinn, R. (1989). Influence of level and source of dietary fat on its comparative feeding value in finishing diets for steers: Feedlot cattle growth and performance. Journal of Animal Science, 67(4), 1029-1037.
  39. Zinn, R. & Shen, Y. (1996). Interaction of dietary calcium and supplemental fat on digestive function and growth performance in feedlot steers. Journal of Animal Science, 74(10), 2303-2309.