8954856055505db

تأثیر مکمل‌ بستر بنتونیت سدیم و تراکم گله بر عملکرد جوجه‌های گوشتی و کیفیت بستر در تابستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

این آزمایش به­منظور بررسی تأثیر مکمل بستر بنتونیت­سدیم و تراکم گله بر عملکرد و کیفیت بستر با استفاده از 252 قطعه جوجۀ ­گوشتی در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی با شش تیمار به­صورت فاکتوریل (2×3) و چهار تکرار انجام ­شد. عامل‌های آزمایشی شامل تراکم در واحد سطح (14؛ تراکم کم و 18؛ تراکم زیاد / پرنده در هر مترمربع) و سه سطح مکمل بستر بنتونیت­سدیم (0، 2 و 4 کیلوگرم در هر مترمربع) بودند. افزایش تراکم سبب افت عملکرد رشد، افزایش رطوبت، pH، شمار اشریشیاکلی و اووسیست بستر، نمرة زخم‌های روده­، زخم کف پا، مفصل خرگوشی و زخم سینه شد (01/0>P). رطوبت بستر و نمرة زخم کف پا و مفصل خرگوشی با افزودن 2 کیلوگرم مکمل ­بستر کاهش یافت (01/0>P). افزودن چهار کیلوگرم بنتونیت­سدیم سبب کاهش شمار اشریشیاکلی و نیتروژن بستر و بهبود افزایش وزن جوجه­ها نسبت به گروه­ شاهد شد (01/0>P). اثر متقابل تراکم و مکمل ­بستر برای نمرة زخم‌های کف پا و مفصل خرگوشی (35 روزگی) معنی­دار بود (05/0>P) به­طوری­که در تراکم کم زخم‌های ناچیز بود و افزودن مکمل ­بستر تأثیری بر آن نداشت اما زخم‌های پا ناشی از تراکم بالا با افزودن 4 کیلوگرم مکمل ­بستر کاهش یافت. نتایج نشان می­دهد که افزودن مکمل بستر بنتونیت­سدیم تأثیر مثبتی بر عملکرد جوجه‌های گوشتی و کیفیت بستر داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of sodium bentonite litter supplement and stocking density on growth performance of broiler and litter quality in summer

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maziar Mohiti-Asli 1
  • Moein Ghanaatparast-Rashti 2
  • Meysam Tavakoli-Alamooti 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 41635-1314, Rasht, Iran
2 Ph.D. Student, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 41635-1314, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of sodium bentonite litter supplement and stoking density on performance and litter quality using a total of 252 broiler chicks in completely randomized design with 6 treatments which were arranged factorially (3×2) and 4 replicates. Experimental factors included: stocking density (14; low and 18; high /birds per m2) and three levels of sodium bentonite litter supplement (0, 2 and 4 kg/m2). Higher stocking density led to lower performance, higher moisture, pH, count of E.coli and oocysts in litter, intestinal lesions score, footpad and hock lesion scores and breast blister (P<0.01).  Litter moisture and footpad and hock scores were reduced by application of 2 kg/m2 litter supplement (P<0.01). Supplementation of 4 kg/m2 sodium bentonite decreased count of E. coli and nitrogen in litter and improved body weight gain of broilers than control (P<0.01). Interactions between stocking density and litter supplement for footpad and hock scores (35 day of age) were significant (P<0.05) as lesions were negligible in lower stocking density without any effect by litter supplement, although the lesions induced by higher density were reduced using 4 kg/m2 litter supplement. Results indicated that application of sodium bentonite as litter supplement had beneficial effects on broilers performance and litter quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • broiler
  • litter quality
  • performance
  • Sodium Bentonite
  • Stocking Density
  1. Abd El-Wahab, A. A., Visscher, C. F., Wolken, S., Reperant, J. M., Beineke, A., Beyerbach, M. & Kamphues, J. (2012). Foot-pad dermatitis and experimentally induced coccidiosis in young turkeys fed a diet without anticoccidia. Poultry Science, 91, 627-635.
  2. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). (2005). Official methods of analysis. 18th ed. Gaithersburg (MD): Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
  3. Beg, M. A. H., Baqui, M. A., Sarker, N. R. & Hossain, M. M. (2011). Effect of Stocking Density and Feeding Regime on Performance of Broiler Chicken in Summer Season. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10, 365-375.
  4. Benyi, K., Netshipale, A. J., Mahlako, K. T. & Gwata, E. T. (2015). Effect of genotype and stocking density on broiler performance during two subtropical seasons. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 47, 969-974.
  5. Bilgili, S. F., Alley, M. A., Hess, J. B. & Nagaraj, M. (2006). Influence of age and sex on footpad quality and yield in broiler chickens reared on low and high density diets. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 15, 433-441.
  6. Buijs, S., Keeling, L., Rettenbacher, S., Van Poucke, E. & Tuyttens, F. A. M. (2009). Stocking density effects on broiler welfare: Identifying sensitive ranges for different indicators. Poultry Science, 88, 1536-1543.
  7. Campo, J.L. & Prieto, M. T. (2009). Effects of moist litter, perches, and droppings pit on fluctuating asymmetry, tonic immobility duration, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio of laying hens. Poultry Science, 88, 708-713.
  8. Conway, D.P. & McKenzie, M.E. (Eds.). (2007). Poultry Coccidiosis. Diagnostic and Testing Procedures. Blackwell, Iowa, USA, (pp. 49-64.)
  9. Cunningham, D. V., Van Tienhoven, A. & Gvaryahu, G. (1988). Population size, cage area, and dominance rank effects on productivity and well-being of laying hens. Poultry Science, 67, 399-406.
  10. Dawkins, M. S., Donnelly, C. A. & Jones, T. A. (2004). Chicken welfare is influenced more by housing conditions than by stocking density. Nature, 427, 342-344.
  11. Dozier, W. A., Thaxton, J. P., Purswell, J. L., Olanrewaju, H. A., Branton, S. L. & Roush, W. B. (2006). Stocking density effects on male broilers grown to 1.8 kilograms of body weight. Poultry Science, 85, 344-351.
  12. Estevez, I. (2007). Density allowances for broilers: where to set the limits? Poultry Science, 86, 1265-1272.
  13. Farouk, M.M., Al-Mazeedi, H.M., Sabow, A. B., Bekhit, A.E.D., Adeyemi, K. D., Sazili, A. Q. & Ghani, A. (2014). Halal and kosher slaughter methods and meat quality: A review. Meat Science, 98, 505-519.
  14. Feddes, J. J., Emmanuel, E. J. & Zuidhoft, M. J. (2002). Broiler performance, body weight variance, feed and water intake, and carcass quality at different stocking densities. Poultry Science, 81, 774-779.
  15. Gingerich, E. & Diamond, V. (2011). E. coli Infections in Poultry. Diamond, V, 1-4.
  16. Gresham, G. A. & Barwick, M. W. (1962). Breast blisters' in the broiler chicken. Nature, 193, 1306-1307.
  17. Gvaryahu, G., Shalev, U., Robinzon, B. & Snapir, N. (1996). Intermingling heavy and light strain chickens may cause social stress. Poultry Science, 75, 849-851.
  18. Houshmand, M., Azhar, K., Zulkifli, I., Bejo, M. H. & Kamyab, A. (2012). Effects of prebiotic, protein level, and stocking density on performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers. Poultry Science, 91, 393-401.
  19. Hu, C. H., Gu, L. Y., Luan, Z. S., Song, J. & Zhu, K. (2012). Effects of montmorillonite–zinc oxide hybrid on performance, diarrhea, intestinal permeability and morphology of weanling pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 177, 108-115.
  20. Huff, G. R., Huff, W. E., Jalukar, S., Oppy, J., Rath, N. C. & Packialakshmi, B. (2013). The effects of yeast feed supplementation on turkey performance and pathogen colonization in a transport stress/Escherichia coli challenge. Poultry Science, 92, 655-662.
  21. Imaeda, N. (2000). Influence of the stocking density and rearing season on incidence of sudden death syndrome in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 79, 201-204.
  22. Johnson, J. & Reid, W. M. (1970). Anticoccidial drugs: lesion scoring techniques in battery and floor-pen experiments with chickens. Experimental Parasitology, 28, 30-36.
  23. Jones, T. A., Donnelly, C. A. & Dawkins, M. S. (2005). Environmental and management factors affecting the welfare of chickens on commercial farms in the United Kingdom and Denmark stocked at five densities. Poultry Science, 84, 1155-1165.
  24. Karamanlis, X., Fortomaris, P., Arsenos, G., Dosis, I., Papaioannou, D., Batzios, C. & Kamarianos, A. (2008). The effect of a natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) on the performance of broiler chickens and the quality of their litter. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 21, 1642-1650.
  25. Lim, S. C., Gomes, C., Kadir, M. Z. A. A. & Abidin, M. Z. (2013). Characterizing of bentonite with chemical, physical and electrical perspectives for improvement of electrical grounding systems. International Journal of Electrochem Science, 8, 11429-11447.
  26. Mohiti-Asli, M. & Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M. (2015). Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 120, 195-202.
  27. NRC (National Research Council). (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Revised ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. USA.
  28. Peek, H. W. & Landman, W. J. M. (2003). Resistance to anticoccidial drugs of Dutch avian Eimeria spp. field isolates originating from 1996, 1999 and 2001. Avian Pathology, 32, 391-401.
  29. Petek, M., Cibik, R., Yildiz, H., Sonat, F. A., Gezen, S. S., Orman, A. & Aydin, C. (2010). The influence of different lighting programs, stocking densities and litter amounts on the welfare and productivity traits of a commercial broiler line. Veterinarija ir Zootechnika, 51, 36-43.
  30. Puron, D., Santamaria, R., Segura, J. C. & Alamilla, J. L. (1995). Broiler performance at different stocking densities. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 4, 55-60.
  31. Redding, M. R. (2011). Bentonites and layered double hydroxides can decrease nutrient losses from spent poultry litter. Applied Clay Science, 52, 20-26.
  32. Redding, M. R. (2013). Bentonite can decrease ammonia volatilization losses from poultry litter: laboratory studies. Animal Production Science, 53, 1115-1118.
  33. Ritz, C. W., Fairchild, B. D. & Lacy, M. P. (2005). Litter quality and broiler performance. Cooperative Extension Service / The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Bulletin, 1267, 1-8.
  34. Sahoo, S. P. (2016). Effect of chemically amended litter on litter quality and broiler performance in winter. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 44, 1-5.
  35. SAS INSTITUTE. (2002). SAS statistics user’s guide. Version 9.2. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  36. Sorensen, P., Su, G. & Kestin, S. C. (2000). Effects of age and stocking density on leg weakness in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 79, 864-870.
  37. Wu, D. W., Chen, X., Yang, X., Leng, Z. X., Yan, P. S. & Zhou, Y. M. (2014). Effects of heat treatment of soy protein isolate on the growth performance and immune function of broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 93, 326-334.
  38. Xie, M., Jiang, Y., Tang, J., Wen, Z. G., Huang, W. & Hou, S. S. (2014). Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass traits, and foot pad lesions of White Pekin ducks. Poultry Science, 93, 1644-1648.
  39. Yardimci, M. & Kenar, B. (2008). Effect of stocking density on litter microbial load in broiler chickens. Archiva Zootechnica, 11, 75-81.
  40. Zhang, H. F., Jiao, H. C., Song, Z. G. & Hai, L. I. N. (2011). Effect of alum-amended litter and stocking density on ammonia release and footpad and hock dermatitis of broilers. Agricultural Sciences in China, 10, 777-785.
  41. Zulkifli, I. & Azah, A. S. N. (2004). Fear and stress reactions and the performance of commercial broiler chickens subjected to regular pleasant and unpleasant contacts with human being. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 88, 77-87.
  42. Zuowei, S., Yan, L., Yuan, L., Jiao, H., Song, Z., Guo, Y. & Lin, H. (2011). Stocking density affects the growth performance of broilers in a sex-dependent fashion. Poultry Science, 90, 1406-1415.