8954856055505db

اثر کربوهیدرات غیر نشاسته‌ای جیره‌های مختلف مکمل شده با آنزیم بر عملکرد، فعالیت آنزیمی، ریخت شناسی بافت روده و بیان ژن‌های انتقال دهنده مواد مغذی و تولید موسین در روده باریک جوجه‌های گوشتی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات علوم دامی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش جهاد کشاورزی استان قم، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران و دانشجوی سابق دکتری، دانشگاه شهرکرد

3 استاد، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کربوهیدرات غیرنشاسته‌ای جیره‌های مختلف مکمل‌شده با آنزیم یا بدون آن بر عملکرد و ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیک جوجۀ گوشتی آزمایشی در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی با پنج تیمار در پنج تکرار (شمار 25 قطعه در هر تکرار) با شمار 625  قطعه جوجۀ یک‌روزۀ مخلوط رأس 308 در دو مقطع 1 تا 21 روزگی و 22 تا 42 روزگی اجرا شد. تیمارها به ترتیب شامل شاهد، گندم، گندم با آنزیم، جو و جو با آنزیم بودند. بر پایۀ نتایج به‌دست‌آمده مشخص شد تأثیر جیره‌های مختلف بر صفت خوراک مصرفی روزانه، افزایش وزن روزانه و ضریب تبدیل خوراک جوجه‌ها در کل دورۀ پرورش معنی‌دار و جیره‌های مکمل‌شده با آنزیم، میانگین‌های بهتری نسبت به جیره‌های بدون آنزیم داشتند (01/0 p<). تغییر اندازۀ پرزهای روده در هر سه قسمت روده وجود داشت و جیره‌های گندم و جو بدون آنزیم باعث کاهش ارتفاع پرز، افزایش ضخامت و عمق کریپت شدند (01/0 p<). همچنین آن‌ها باعث افزایش فعالیت آنزیمی لوزالمعده و غلظت آنزیمی سرم شدند (01/0 p<)، اما مکمل‌سازی جیره‌ها با آنزیم باعث جبران این آسیب‌ها شد (01/0 p<). تغییر بیان ژن‌های انتقال‌دهندۀ مواد مغذی و تولید موسین برای جیره‌های آزمایشی در رودۀ باریک معنی‌دار بود (01/0 p<). گندم و جو بدون آنزیم بیشترین بیان ژن‌ انتقال مواد مغذی و تولید موسین را داشتند اما مکمل‌سازی با آنزیم باعث کاهش این مقادیر شد (01/0 p<). در کل استفاده از جیره‌های با کربوهیدرات غیرنشاسته‌ای مختلف بدون آنزیم باعث آسیب به عملکرد و صفات فیزیولوژیک جوجه‌ها ‌شد، ولی مکمل‌سازی با آنزیم اثرگذاری منفی ایجادشده را خنثی کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different dietary enzyme supplemented non-starch polysaccharides on growth performance, villus morphology, enzyme activity and gene expression of nutrient transporters and mucin producer in the small intestine of broiler chickens

نویسندگان [English]

  • Akbar Yaghobfar 1
  • Majid Kalantar 2
  • Faroborz Khajeali 3
1 Professor, Animal Science Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Animal Science Department of Agricultural Research Center of Qom, Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Organization. Tehran, Iran, and former PhD Student of Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
3 Professor, Animal Science Department of Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
چکیده [English]

 

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different dietary enzyme supplemented non-starch polysaccharides on growth and physiological traits of broilers. 625 one day old Ross-308 broiler chickens were allocated randomly to 5 treatments with 5 replicates using a CRD statistical design through 1 to 21 and 22 to 42 days of rearing period. Treatments were included control, wheat, wheat + enzyme, barley and barley + enzyme. According to the results, effect of various diets with different source of NSP on growth traits was significant and wheat or barley diets supplemented with enzymes had higher means than those without enzymes (p<0.01). Effect of various diets with different source of NSP supplemented with or without enzymes on villus morphology was significant (p<0.01). Wheat and barley without enzymes resulted in reducing villus height, adversely increasing villus width and crypt depth in three parts of intestine, but supplementation with enzymes restored the adverse effects (p<0.01). Wheat and barley without enzymes resulted in higher pancreatic enzyme activity and serum enzyme levels (p<0.01). Also these two diets resulted in higher gene expression for nutrient transporters and mucin producer in the intestine but supplementation with enzymes restored the situation (p<0.01). As a final result using of different source of non-starch polysaccharides without enzymes in this experiment resulted in destruction of broiler growth and physiological traits but supplementation with enzymes restored the undesirable effects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Broilers
  • Enzyme activity
  • gene expression
  • non-starch carbohydrate
  • villus morphology
  1. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (A.O.A.C). (2005). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists International, 18th ed., 1st suppl. Gaithersburg, MD U.S.A
  2. Cowieson, A.J., Acamovic, T. & Bedford, M.R. (2004). The effects of phytase and phytic acid on the loss of endogenous amino acids and minerals from broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 45, 101-108.
  3. Ferraris, R.P. (2001). Dietary and developmental regulation of intestinal sugar transport. Journal of Biochemistry, 360, 265-275.
  4. Finnie, S.M., Bettge, A.D. & Morris, C.F. (2006). Influence of cultivar and environment on water-soluble and water-insoluble arabinoxylans in soft wheat. Journal of Cereal Chemistry, 83(6), 617-623.
  5. Garcia, M., Lazaro, R., Latorre, M.A., Gracia, M.I. & Mateos, G.G. (2008). Influence of enzyme supplementation and heat processing of barley on digestive traits and productive performance of broilers. Poultry Science, 87, 940-948.
  6. Gilbert, E.R., Wong, E.A. & Webb Jr., K.E. (2008). Peptide absorption and utilization: Implications for animal nutrition and health. Animal Science, 86, 2135-2155.
  7. Gilbert, E.R., Li, H., Emerson, D.A., Webb Jr., K.E. & Wong, E.A. (2007). Development regulation of nutrient transporter and enzyme mRNA abundance in the small intestine of broilers. Poultry Science, 86, 1739-1753.
  8. Gilbert, E.R., Li, H., Emerson, D.A., Webb Jr., K.E. & Wong, E.A. (2008). Dietary protein quality and feed restriction influence abundance of nutrient transporter mRNA in the small intestine of broiler chicks. Journal of Nutrition, 138, 262-271.
  9. Gilbert, E.R., Li, H., Emmerson, D.A., Webb Jr., K.E. & Wong, E.A. (2010). Dietary protein composition influences abundance of peptide and amino acid transporter messenger ribonucleic acid in the small intestine of 2 lines of broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 89, 1663-1676.
  10. Gilbert, E.R., Li, H., Emmerson, D.A., Webb Jr., K.E. & Wong, E.A. (2007). Developmental regulation of nutrient transporter and enzyme mRNA aboundance in the small intestine of broilers. Poultry Science, 86, 1739-1753.
  11. Jaroni, D., Scheideler, S.E., Beck, M.M. & Wyatt, C. (1999). The effect of dietary wheat middling and enzyme supplementation. II: Apparent nutrient digestibility, digestive tract size, guts viscosity and gut morphology I two strains of leghorn hens. Poultry Science, 78, 1664-1674.
  12. Livak, K.J. & Schmittgen, T.D. (2001). Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2-∆∆Ct   method. Journal of Methods, 25, 402-408.
  13. Lorenz, K. (1998). Clinical laboratory diagnostics.1sted.Frankfurt.TH-Books Verlagsgesellschaft P7-95 (Lipase) and 192-202 (a-Amylase).
  14. Megazyme International Ireland ltd., Bray Business Park, bray, co. wicliow, Ireland. Internet: www. Megazyme.
  15. Montagne, L., Piel, C. & Lalles, J.P. (2004). Effect of diet on mucin kinetics and composition: Nutrition and health implications. Nutrition Review, 62, 105-114.
  16. Mott, C.R., Siegel, P.B., Webb Jr., K.E. & Wong, E.A. (2008). Gene expression of transporters in the small intestine of chickens from lines divergently selected for high or low Junvenile body weight. Poultry Science, 87, 2215-2224.
  17. Nourmohammadi, R. & Afzali, N. (2013). Effect of citric acid and microbial phytase on small intestine morphology in broiler chicken. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 12(1), 12:e7 doi: 10.4081/ijas.2013.e7.
  18. Pourreza, J., Samie, A.H. & Rowghani, E. (2007). Effect of supplemental enzyme on nutrient digestibility and performance of broiler chicks fed on diets containing triticale. International Journal of Poultry Science, 6, 115-117.
  19. Ravindran, V., Selle, P.H., Ravindran, G., Morel, P.C.M., Kies, A.K. & Bryden, W.L. (2001). Microbial phytase improves performance, apparent metabolizable energy, and ileal amino acid digestibility of broilers fed a lysine-deficient diet. Poultry Science, 80, 338-344.
  20. Ravindran, V., Selle, P.H. & Bryden, W.L. (1999). Effects of phytase supplementation, individually and in combination, with glycanase, on the nutritive value of wheat and barley. Poultry Science, 78, 1588-1595.
  21. Sakata, T. (1987). Stimulatory effect of short chain fatty acids on epithelial cell proliferation in the rat intestine: A possible explanation for trophic effects of fermentable fiber, gut microbes and luminal trophic factors. British Journal of Nutrition, 58, 95-103.
  22. SAS Institute. (2004). SAS procedure guide for personal computers, STAT User Guide, Statistics. Version 9.1., SAS Institute INC, Cary NC.
  23. Selle, P.H. & Ravindran, V. (2007). Microbial phytase in poultry nutrition. Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology, 135, 1-41.
  24. Silva, S.S. & Smithard, R.R. (1996). Exogenous enzymes in broiler diet crypt cell proliferation, digesta viscosity short chain fatty acids and xylanase in the jejunum. British Poultry Science, 37, 577-579.
  25. Silva, S.S.P. & Smithard, R.R. (2002). Effect of enzyme supplementation of a rye-based diet on xylanase activity in the small intestine of broilers, on intestinal crypt cell proliferation and on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of the birds. British Poultry Science, 43, 274-282.
  26. Slominski, B.A. (2011). Recent advances in research on enzymes for poultry diets. Review: Poultry Science, 90, 2013-2023.
  27. Smirnov, A., Sklan, D. & Uni, Z. (2004). Mucin dynamics in the small intestine are altered by starvation. Journal of Nutrition, 134, 738-742.
  28. Smirnov, A., Tako, E., Ferket, P.R. & Uni, Z. (2006). Mucin gene expression and mucin content in the chicken intestinal goblet cells are affected by in ovo feeding of carbohydrates. Poultry Science, 85, 669-673.
  29. Uni, Z., Geyra, A., Ben Hur, H. & Sklan, D. (2000). Small intestine development in the young chick: Crypt formation and enterocyte proliferation and migration. British Poultry Science, 41, 544-551.
  30. Uni, Z., Smirnov, A. & Sklan, D. (2003a). Pre- and posthatch development of goblet cells in the broiler small intestine: Effect of delayed access to feed. Poultry Science, 82, 320-327.
  31. Uni, Z. & Ferket, P. (2004). Methods for early nutrition and their potential. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 60, 101-111.
  32. Viveros, A., Brenes, A., Pizarro, M. & Castanb, M. (1994). Effect of enzyme supplementation of a diet based on barley on apparent digestibility, growth performance and gut morphology of broilers. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 48, 237-251.
  33. Wu, Y.B., Ravindran, V., Thomas, D.G., Birties, M.J. & Hendriks, W.H. (2004). Influence of method of whole wheat inclusion and xylanase supplementation on the performance, apparent metabolisable energy, digestive tract measurements and gut morphology of broilers. British Poultry Science, 45, 385-394.
  34. Yaghobfar, A.,Mirzaei, S., Valizadeh, H. & Safamehr, A. (2012). Determination of Non-Starch Polysaccharides (NSP) and metabolizable energy of Iran wheat varieties fed to poultry. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 4(1), 25-3.
  35. Yu, B., Tsai, C.C., Hsu, J.C. & Chiou, P.W.S. (1998). Effect of different sources of dietary fiber on growth performance, intestinal morphology and caecal carbohydrates of domestic geese. British Poultry Science, 39, 560-567.