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اثر نوع فرایند حرارتی بر ترکیب شیمیایی، تجزیه‌پذیری و تخمیرپذیری برون‌تنی پسماندهای لپه‌پاک‌کنی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد تغذیۀ دام، دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشیار تغذیۀ دام دانشگاه ارومیه

3 استادیار تغذیۀ دام، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر به‌منظور ارزیابی اثر روش‌های مختلف فراوری‌های حرارتی شامل اتوکلاو، تفت‌دادن، پولکی‌کردن با بخار و ریزموج، بر ترکیب شیمیایی، غلظت مواد ضد مغذی (تانن و ترکیبات فنولیک)، تجزیه‌پذیری مادۀ خشک و پروتئین خام انجام گرفت. در این آزمایش از سه رأس گاو نر بالغ فیستوله‌گذاری‌شدۀ نژاد هلشتاین (طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی) و میزان گاز تولیدی در شرایط آزمایشگاهی (طرح کاملاً تصادفی، با پنج تیمار، سه دورۀ مجزا و سه تکرار به ازای هر تیمار در هر دوره) و پسماندهای کارخانه‌های لپه‌پاک‌کنی استفاده شد. غلظت مادۀ خشک، پروتئین خام (درصد مادۀ خشک)، خاکستر (درصد مادۀ خشک)، مقدار تجزیه‌پذیری مؤثر مادۀ خشک (گرم در 100 گرم مادۀ خشک) و پروتئین خام (گرم در 100 گرم پروتئین خام) در نرخ عبور 02/0، غلظت مادۀ آلی قابل‌هضم (گرم بر 100 گرم مادۀ آلی) و تولید پروتئین میکروبی (گرم به ازای هر کیلوگرم مادۀ آلی قابل‌هضم) در پسماند فراوری‌نشده به ترتیب برابر 2/89، 1/26، 26/2، 65، 5/79، 52 و 71/62 بود. فراوری‌های حرارتی در مقایسه با گروه شاهد به‌صورت معناداری (05/0 (P با کاهش بخش محلول پروتئین، به کاهش پروتئین قابل‌تجزیۀ سریع در شکمبه، کاهش سنتز پروتئین میکروبی و در مقابل افزایش عبور پروتئین تجزیه‌نشده به رودۀ باریک انجامید. بیشترین کاهش در غلظت تانن و ترکیبات فنولیک، به فراوری با امواج ریزموج مربوط بود و کمترین غلظت پروتئین قابل‌تجزیۀ مؤثر در شکمبه، به گروه فراوری‌شده با اتوکلاو متعلق بود. تفت‌دادن سبب بیشترین کاهش در پروتئین قابل‌تجزیۀ سریع در شکمبه شد، ولی بر مادۀ آلی قابل‌هضم و مقدار انرژی قابل متابولیسم تأثیر نامطلوبی نداشت؛ بنابراین با توجه به نتایج، در دسترس‌بودن فرایندها و هزینۀ فراوری، تفت‌دادن به‌عنوان فراوری مناسب به‌منظور کاهش پروتئین قابل‌تجزیه در شکمبه توصیه می‌شود. اجرای آزمایش‌های تکمیلی در شرایط درون‌تنی به‌منظور بررسی بیشتر بازده فراوری و ارزش اقتصادی پسماندهای لپه‌پاک‌کنی در تغذیۀ نشخوارکنندگان ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of heat treatments on chemical composition, in situ degradability and in vitro fermentability of chick pea pre-cleaning wastes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Shamee 1
  • Rrasool Pirmohammadi 2
  • Hamed Khalikvandi Behroozyar 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Animal Science, University of Urmia, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, University of Urmia, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, University of Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different heating treatments (Autoclaving, roasting, steam flaking and Microwave irradiation) on chemical composition, anti- nutritional compounds (tannin and phenolic), in situ dry mater (DM) and crude prate in (CP) degradability. Three fistulated bull in a complete randomized block design and in vitro gas production kinetics (complete randomized design, 3 different runs, 3 replication for each of treatments) pre cleaninig chick pea wastes were used. Unprocessed and wastes (control) had DM (g/100 g), CP (%DM) and ash (%DM) content of 89.2, 26.1 and 2.26, respectively, in situ DM and CP effective degradability (g/100 DM & CP, respectively, k=0.02), digestible OM (g/100 g) and microbial protein yield (g/kg DOM) was 65, 79.5, 52 and 62.7, respectively. Heat treatments significantly (P<0.05) reduced soluble protein fraction, resulted in lower QDP, microbial protein yield and the higher amount of protein passing into the small intestine in compare to control group. Microwave irradiation had higher efficiency in reduction of tannins and phenolic compounds and lowest effective protein degradability was belonged to autoclaved materials. Roasting had higher efficiency in reducing QDP, without negative effects on OMD and ME estimates. According to the obtained results, cost and availability of processing, roasting is the best of processing method to reduce the rate of protein degradation in the rumen. In vivo experiments are needed for more evaluation of processing efficiency and economical values of chick pea pre cleaninig wastes in ruminants’ nutrition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Degradability
  • microwave irradiation
  • steam flaking
  • tannin
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