Angel, C.R. (1993). Age changes in the digestibility of nutrients in ostriches and nutrient profiles of the hen and chick. In: Proceedings of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, January 1993, Atlanta, GA, USA. Association of Avian Veterinarians, Atlanta, pp. 275-281.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. 13th ed. AOAC, Washington, DC.Atlanta.
Brand, T.S. (2005). Ostrich nutrition technical brochure. Elsenburg Animal Production Institute, South Africa, pp 12.
Brand, T.S. (2008). Ostrich nutrition: a scientific approach. Sunday Print, University of Stellenbosch,
Brand, T.S., Aucamp, B.B. & Kruger, A.C.M. (2006). The effect of pelleting on the diet utilization by ostriches. In: Proceedings of the 41th Congress of the South African Society Animal Science, Bloemfontein, South Africa, p 164.
Brand, Z., Brand, T.S. & Brown, C.R. (2005). The effect of dietary energy and protein levels on body condition and production of breeding male ostriches. South African Journal of Animal Science, 32, 231-239.
Clarson, K., Jones, B., Bott, R., Bower, B., Chotani, G. & Becker, T. (2001). Enzymes: screening, expression, design and production, in: BEDFORD, M.R. (Ed.) Enzymes in farm animal nutrition, pp. 315-352 (CABI, Wiltshire).
Cooper, RG. & Benson, FV. (2008). Soybean meal, an important component of ostrich diets. Feed Mixture, 8, 25-26.
Deeming, D.C. (1999). The Ostrich: Biology, Production and Health; CABI Publishing, Walingford Oxon (UK) and New York (USA). PP. 13-83.
Gilliers, SC. (1998). Feedstuff evaluation, metabolizable energy and amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth in ostriches. In: Proceedings of 2nd International Ratite Conference, 21–23 September 1998. Outshoorn Press, Onderstepoort, pp. 12-23.
Han, I. K. & Min, T. S. (1991). The effects of dietary supplementation with Kemzyme in broilers. Korian Journal of Animal Nutrition and Feeding, 15(1), 9-16.
Kececi, O., Oguz, H., Kurtoglu, V. & Demet, O. (1998). Effects of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, synthetic zeolite and bentonite on serum biochemical and haematological characters of broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis. British. Poultry Science, 39, 452-458.
Kocher, A., Choct, M., Morrisroe, L. & Broz, J. (2001). Effects of enzyme supplementation on the replacement value of canola meal for soybean meal in broiler diets. Australian Journal Agricultural Research, 52, 447-452.
Kocher, A., Choct, M., Porter, M. D. & Broz, J. (2000). The effects of enzyme addition to broiler diets containing high concentration of canola or sunflower meal. Poultry Science, 79, 1767-1774.
Kocher, A., Choct, M., Porter, M. D. & Broz, J. (2002). Effects of feed enzymes on nutritive value of soybean meal fed to broilers. British Poultry Science, 43, 54-63.
Mathlouthi, N., Lallès, J.P., Lepercq, P., Juste, C. & Larbier, M. (2002). Xylanase and β-glucanase supplementation improve conjugated bile acid fraction in intestinal contents and increase villus size of small intestine wall in broiler chickens fed a rye-based diet. Journal of Animal Science, 80(11), 2773-2779.
Miao, Z.H., Glatz, P.C. & Ru, Y.J. (2003). The nutrition requirements and foraging behaviour of ostriches. Asian–Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 16, 773-788.
Meng, X., Slominski, B. A., Nyachoti, C. M., Campbell, L. D. & Guenter, W. (2005). Degradation of cell wall polysaccharides by combinations of carbohydrase enzymes and their effect on nutrient utilization and broiler chicken performance. Poultry Science, 84, 37-47.
Noh, S. H., Lee, C. H., Choi, Y. J. & Han, In. K. (1994). Effect of antibiotics, enzyme, yeast, probiotics and B-agonist on the growth performance and nutrient availability in broilers. Korean Journal Animal Science, 36(6), 630.
NRC. (1994). Nutrient requirements of poultry, 9th rev. Edn, (Washington, DC, National Academy Press).
Petterson, D. & Aman, P. (1989). Enzyme supplementation of a poultry diet containing rye and wheat. British Journal Nutrition, 62, 139-149.
Piao, X. S., Han, In K., Kim, J. H., Cho, W. T., Kim, Y. H. & Chao Liang. (1998). Effects of kemzyme, phytase and yeast supplementation on the growth performance and pollution reduction of broiler chicks. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 12(1), 36-41.
Ritz, C. W., Hulet, R. M., Self, B. B. & Denbow, D. M. (1995). Growth and intestinal morphology of male turkeys as influenced by dietary supplementation of amylase and xylanase. Poultry Science, 74, 1329-1334.
Rotter, B. A., Frriesen, O. D., Gventer, W. & Mmarquardt, R. R. (1990). Influence of enzyme supplementation on the bioavailable enegy of barely. Poultry Science, 69, 1174-1181.
Sales, J. & Janssens, G.P.J. (2003). The use of markers to determine energy metabolizability and nutrient digestibility in avian species. World's Poultry Science Journal, 59, 314-327.
Selle, P. H., Ravindran, V. & Partridge, G. G. (2009). Beneficial effects of xylanase and/or phytase inclusions on ileal amino acid digestibility, energy utilisation, mineral retention and growth performance in wheatbased broiler diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 153, 303-313.
Scheideler, S.E. & Sell, J. L. (1997). Nutrition Guidelines for Ostriches and Emus; Coperative Extension Service, Iowa state University of Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa.
Simbaya, J., Slominski, B. A., Guenter, W., Morgan, A. & Campbell, L. D. (1996). The effects of protease and carbohydrase supplementation on the nutritive value of canola meal for poultry: In vitro and in vivo studies. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 61, 219-234.
slovinski, J.M., Johnson, J.H. & Weiner, S.T. (2011). Husbandry and Medical Management of Ostriches, Emus and Rheas. Wildlife and Exotic Animal Teleconsultants, College Station, Texas.
Statistical Analysis System Institute. (2006). SAS User's guide: Statistics. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
Steenfeldt, S. (2001). The dietary effect of different wheat cultivars for broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 42, 595-609.
Steenfeldt, S., Hammershoj, M., Mullertz, A. & Jensen, J. F. (1998). Enzyme supplementation of wheat-based diets for broilers. 2. Effect on apparent metabolisable energy content and nutrient digestibility. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 75, 45-64.
Swart, D. (1993). Studies on the hatching, growth and energy metabolism in the ostrich chick (Struthio camelus).PhD thesis, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch.
Theander, O., Westerlund, E., Aman, P. & Graham, H. (1989). Plant cell walls and monogastric diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 23, 205-225.
Van Soest, J. P., Robertson, J. B. & Lewis, B. A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3597.
Wursch, P., Del Vedovo, S. & Koellreutter, B. (1986). Cell structure and starch nature as key determinations of the digestion rate of starch. Amrican Journal Clinical Nutrition, 43, 25-29.
Zanella, I., Sakomura, N. K., Silversides, F. G., Fiqueirdo, A. & Pack, M. (1999). Effect of enzyme supplementation of broiler diets based on corn and soybeans. Poultry Science, 78, 561-568.