عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The financial losses, absolute and net economic values (EVs) for direct (DCD) and Maternal Calving Difficulty (MCD) were estimated using a bioeconomic model and taking into account the categorical nature of the trait. The effects of dystocia on other traits were estimated. But because of low reliability they were not considered for calculations in the base situation. In the base situation, the average costs of dystocia incidence were estimated to be Rls 518,700 per calving. Absolute EVs (per calving per cow) and net EVs (per cow per year) for DCD were Rls -27,800 and -14,200 respectively, and for MCD the two of them were stimated as Rls-2800. Most important economic consequences of calving difficulty were milk losses, probability of dead cow and stillbirth. Sensitivity analysis showed that frequency of dystocia incidence was the factor with the largest impact on the costs and economic values for difficult calving. According to population, production and economic parameters valid in 2009, total dystocia costs to Holstein dairy cattle industry were estimated to be Rls 49.1 billions. Results obtained in this study can be helpful to change the attitudes of farmers and their consultants to pay more attention to calving performance and use management and genetic strategies to reduce dystocia incidence.