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ردیابی نشانه‌های انتخاب مثبت در نژاد‌های گوسفند ایرانی افشاری و مغانی با استفاده از اطلاعات ژنگانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری ژنتیک و اصلاح نژاد دام، گروه علوم دامی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین خوزستان

2 استاد، گروه علوم دامی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین خوزستان

3 استادیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه اراک

4 استادیار، پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران

5 پژوهشگر مرکز علوم بالینی مغز، دانشگاه ادینبرو، انگلستان

چکیده

شناسایی مناطق ژنگانی (ژنومی) تحت انتخاب مثبت از بحث‌های مهم در حوزۀ ژنتیک جمعیت است. هدف این تحقیق، شناسایی مناطقی از ژنگان گوسفندان افشاری و مغانی است که تحت ­تأثیر انتخاب طبیعی یا مصنوعی قرار گرفته­اند. برای این منظور 75 رأس گوسفند از دو نژاد افشاری (41 رأس) و مغانی (34 رأس)، با استفاده از آرایه­های ژنگانیIllumina Ovine SNP50K BeadChip تعیین نژادگان (ژنوتیپ) شدند. برای ردیابی نشانه­های انتخاب مثبت، از آزمون نااریب FST(تتا) در بستۀ نرم­افزاری Lokern در محیط R استفاده شد. نتایج این تحقیق منجر به شناسایی 16منطقۀ ژنگانی روی کروموزوم­های 2، 3، 4، 8، 9، 13، 15، 22 و 26 شد که هدف انتخاب­های مثبت در این نژادها قرارگرفته بودند. بیشتر این ژن­ها در مسیر­های انتقال سیگنال­ در طیف گسترده­ای از فرآیند­های سلولی و بیوشیمیایی نقش داشتند. به‌ویژه، نشانه­های انتخاب پوشانندۀ چندین ژن که به‌طور مستقیم یا غیر­مستقیم بر فرآیند­های تجمع رنگدانه­ در پوست (EDN3، BNC2)، ریخت‌شناختی (مورفولوژی) اسکلت یا ساختار و اندازۀ بدن (BMP2، EXT2،ALX4)، تنظیم سوخت‌وساز (PPP1R3D) و پاسخ ایمنی (IL2RB) مرتبط بودند، شناسایی شدند. مکان­های ژنی شناسایی­شده نشان می­دهد که انتخاب­های انجام شده در فرآیند و روند تکامل و سازگار شدن با محیط و شرایط جغرافیایی متفاوت، منجر به تفرق جمعیتی نژادهای افشاری و مغانی شده است. بنابراین، نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از این تحقیق می­تواند نقش مهمی در ردیابی مناطق ژنگانی مرتبط با صفات پدیدگانی (فنوتیپی) متمایزکنندۀ این دو نژاد بومی داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Tracking signatures of positive selection in Iranian Afshari and Moghani Sheep breeds using genomic data

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zohre Yousefi 1
  • Mohammad Taghi Beige Nasiri 2
  • mohammad hosein moradi 3
  • Rostam Abdollahi Arpanahi 4
  • Masoud Shirali 5
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Animal Science, Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Animal Science, Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, College of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Arak University, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Aburaihan campus University of Tehran, Iran
5 Research Fellow Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK
چکیده [English]

The detection of genomic regions under positive selection is one of the important topics in population genetics. The objective of the present study was to identify the genomic regions that have been under natural or artificial selection in Afshari and Moghani sheep breeds. Seventy-five samples from Afshari (N=41) and Moghani (N=34) breeds have been genotyped using the Illumina Ovine SNP50K BeadChip. Unbiased method of population differentiation index (Theta) was used to detect the positive selection signatures using Lokern R package. The results of this study revealed 16 genetic regions on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 13, 15, 22 and 26 where have been under positive selection in these two Iranian sheep breeds. A majority of the genes were involved in signal transduction pathways in a wide variety of cellular and biochemical processes. In particular, selection signatures were identified spanning several genes that directly or indirectly influenced pigmentation (EDN3, BNC2), skeletal morphology and body size (ALX4, EXT2, BMP2), metabolic regulation (PPP1R3D) and immune response (IL2RB). The results of the present study and identified genomic regions suggest that the selection during the evolution and adaptation to the different environments and geographical conditions led to population differentiation in Afshari and Moghani breeds. In conclusion, finding of this study can play an important role in tracing the genomic regions associated with the distinctive traits of these two indigenous breeds.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Afshari sheep
  • candidate genes
  • Moghani sheep
  • population differentiation index
  • selection signature
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