8954856055505db

تأثیر سطوح مختلف اسیدهای آمینه و روش‌های دسترسی به دان بر عملکرد تولیدی و سیستم ایمنی جوجه‌های گوشتی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم دامی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار گروه علوم دامی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

3 عضو هیئت علمی مرکز تحقیقات علوم دامی کشور

4 دانشیار بخش ژنتیک و اصلاح دام گروه علوم دامی دانشکدة مهندسی کشاورزی دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

چکیده

هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی اثرات سطوح مختلف آمینو اسید و روشهای دسترسی به دان بر عملکرد و سیستم ایمنی جوجه های گوشتی بود. این آزمایش در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی و به روش فاکتوریل با سه روش دسترسی به دان و دو سطح اسیدآمینه انجام شد. از 12 روزگی تا پایان دوره پرورش سه روش دسترسی آزاد به دان، محدودیت غذایی با دسترسی متناوب و محدودیت غذایی با دسترسی پیوسته به دان اعمال شد. جیره های آزمایشی شامل دو سطح اسید آمینه لیزین طبق سطح پیشنهادی سویه آرین و سطح 8 درصد بیشتر از آن بود. هر تیمار شامل 6 تکرار و هر تکرار دارای 23 قطعه جوجه گوشتی بود. محدودیت غذایی با دسترسی پیوسته به دان به‌طور معنی‌دار )05/0(P< سبب کاهش درصد تلفات و حذفی شد. با اعمال روش‌های خوراک‌دهی متناوب و پیوسته ضریب تبدیل غذایی به‌طور معنی‌دار )05/0(P< بهبود یافت. با افزایش سطح اسیدهای آمینه درصد لنفوسیت کاهش، درصد هتروفیل و نسبت هتروفیل به لنفوسیت افزایش ‌یافت )05/0(P

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different levels of amino acids and feeding methods on growth performance and immune responses in broiler chickens

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kazem Yussefi Kelarikikolaee 1
  • Hossein Moravej 2
  • Seyyed Abdollah Hosseini 3
  • Abbas Pakdel 4
چکیده [English]

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of amino acid and feeding methods on performance and immune system of broiler chickens. Experimental design was based on completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement with 3 feeding methods [control (ad libitum feed intake), intermittent feeding (IF) and continuous feed withdrawal (FW)), and 2 amino acid levels (level recommended by Arian and 8 % more). Each treatment was replicated 6 times with 23 male broilers per replicate. The CFW method was associated with a decreased mortality rate (P<0.05). The IF and FW methods improved feed conversion ratio (P<0.05). In CFW and IF feeding programs, the relative weight of spleen was increased (P<0.05). At higher amino acid level, the percentage of circulatory lymphocyte was decreased and that of heterophil and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio were increased (P<0.05). In conclusion, it seems that the FW feeding regimen with Arian recommended amino acid level might have a positive effect on the cellular but not the humeral immune system with no adverse effect on growth performance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • broiler
  • Amino acid
  • feeding method
  • Immune system
  • performance
  1. Yussefi Kelaricolaee, K., Husseini, S. A., Shojaee, H., Eghbalian, A. N. & Yussefi, H. (2010). Study  the  effect  of  restricted  time  of  feeding  on  performance  and  carcass  characteristics  of  Arian  broiler chickens. Animal Sciences Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi), 89, 22-27. (In Farsi).
  2. Yussefi Kelaricolaee, K., Moraveg, H., Husseini, S. A. & Pakdel, A. (2013). Amino acid density and feeding methods on performance and carcass parameters of Arian broiler chickens. Animal Sciences Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi), 105. (In press) (In Farsi).
  3. Arian Broiler Management Guide. (2015). ministry of Agriculture. 5th edition. (In Farsi).
  4. Akhlaghi, A., Zamiri, M. J., JafariAhangari, Y., Atashi, H., Ansari  Pirsaraei, Z., Deldar, H., Eghbalian, A. N., Akhlaghi, A. A., Navidshad, B., Yussefi Kelarikolaei, K. & Hashemi, S. R. (2013). Oral exposure of broiler breeder hens to extra thyroxine modulates early adaptive immune responses in progeny chicks. Poultry Science, 92, 1040–1049.
  5. Cobb-Vantress. (2012). Broiler growth & Nutrition supplement-Cobb 500, Cobb-Vantress, Siloam Springs, Arkansas.

6.       Dibner, J.  J., Knight, C. D., Kitchell, M. L., Atwell, C. A., Downs, A. C. & Ivey, E.  J. (1998). Early feeding and development of the immune system in neonatal poultry. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 7, 425-436.

7.       De Jong, I. C., Van Voorst, S., Ehlhardt, D. A., and Blokhuis, H. J. (2002). Effects of restricted feeding on physiological stress parameters in growing broiler breeders. British Poultry Science, 43, 157-168.

 

8.       Demir, E., Sarica, S., Sekeroglu, A., Ozean, M. A. & Seker, Y. (2004). Effects of early and late feed restriction or feed withdrawal on growth performance, ascites and blood constituents of broiler chickens. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A – Animal Science, 54, 152-158.

  1. Feng, Y., Yang, X. J., Wang, Y. B., Li, W. L., Liu, Y., Yin, R. Q. & Yao, J. H. (2012). Effects of immune stress on performance parameters, intestinal enzyme activity and mRNA expression of intestinal transporters in broiler chickens. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 25, 701-707.
  2. Garriga, C., Hunter, R. R., Amat, C., Planas, J. M., Mitchell, M. A. & Moreto, M. (2006). Heat stress increases apical glucose transport in the chicken jejunum. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 290, 195-201.
  3. Hangalapura, B. N., Nieuwland, M. G. B., De VriesReilingh, G., Buyse, J.,  Van Den Brand, H., Kemp, B. & Parmentier, H. K. (2005). Severe feed restriction enhances innate immunity but suppresses cellular immunity in chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses. Poultry Science, 84, 1520–1529.
  4. Hassanzadeh, M., Bozorgmerifard, M. H., Buyse, J. Bruggeman, V. & Decuypere, E. (2004). Effect of chronic hypoxia during the embryonic development on the physiological functioning and on hatching parameters related to ascites syndrome in broiler chickens. Avian Pathology, 33, 558-564.
  5. Houshmand, M. (2010). A comparative study on the efficacy of a commercial prebiotic, probiotic and organic acids in improving the performance of broiler chicken. Ph.D thesis, University Putra, Malaysia.
  6. Hu, X. F. & Guo, Y. M. (2008). Corticosterone administration alters small intestinal morphology and function of broiler chickens. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 21, 1773-1778.  
  7. Hu, X. F., Guo, Y. M., Huang, B. Y., Zhang, L. B., Bun, S., Liu, D., Long, F. Y., Li, J. H., Yang, X. & Jiao, P. (2010). Effect of corticosterone administration on small intestinal weight and expression of small intestinal nutrient transporter mRNA of broiler chickens. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 23, 175-181.
  8. Houshmand, M. (2010). A comparative study on the efficacy of a commercial prebiotic, probiotic and organic acids in improving the performance of broiler chicken. Ph.D thesis. University Putra, Malaysia.
  9. Jang, I. S., Kang, S. Y., Ko, Y. H., Moon, Y. S. & Sohn, S. H. (2009). Effect of qualitative and quantitative feed restriction on growth performance and immune function in broiler chickens. Asian - Australasian journal of animal sciences, 22, 388-395.
  10. Kang, M. S., Kwon, Y. K., Jung, B. Y., Kim, A., Lee, K. M., An, B. K., Song, E. A., Kwon, J. H. & Chung, G. S. (2011). Differential identification of Salmonella enteric serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum based on polymorphic regions of glgC and speC genes. Veterinary Microbiology, 147, 181–185.
  11. Katanbaf, M. N., Dunnington, E. A. & Siegel, P. B. (1989). Restricted feeding in early and late-feathering chickens. 1. Growth and physiological responses. Poultry Science, 68, 344-351.
  12. Khajavi, M., Rahimi, S., Hassan, Z. M., Kamali, M. A. & Mousavi, T. (2003). Effect of feed restriction early in life on humoral and cellular immunity of two commercial broiler strains under heat stress conditions. British Poultry Science, 4, 490-497.
  13. Klasing, K. C. (1988). Influence of acute feed deprivation or excess feed intake on immunocompetence of broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 67, 626-634.
  14. Klasing, K. C. (2004). The costs of immunity. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 50, 961-969.
  15. Lemme, A., Elwert, C. & Casanovas, P. (2009). Optimal dietary amino acid supply in Cobb 500 broilers under European feeding conditions. Evonik Degussa (Amino news), Vol. 13, No. 01.
  16. Liew, P. K., Zulkifli, I., Hair-Bejo, M., Omar, A. R. & Israf, D. A. (2003). Effects of early age feed restriction and heat conditioning on heat shock protein 70 expression, resistance to infectious bursal disease, and growth in male broiler chickens subjected to heat stress. Poultry Science, 82, 1879-1885.
  17. Maxwell, M. H., Robertson, G. W., Anderson, I. A., Dick, L. A. & Lynch, M. (1991). Haematology and histopathology of seven-week-old broilers after early food restriction. Research in Veterinary Science, 50, 290-297.
  18. Moberg, G. A. & Mench, J. A. (2000). The biology of animal stress: Basic principles and implications for animal welfare. CAB International Publishing.
  19. Nicol, C. J., Brown, S. N., Glen, E., Pope, S. J., Short, F. J., Warriss, P. D., Zimmerman, P. H. & Wilkins, L. J. (2006). Effects of stocking density flock size and management on the welfare of laying hens in single-tier aviaries. British Poultry Science, 47, 135-146.
  20. Panda, A. K., Rama Rao, S. V., Raju, M. V. L. N., Lavanya, G., Pradeep Kumar Reddy, E., and Shyam Sunder, G. (2011). Early growth response of broilers to dietary lysine at fixed ratio to crude protein and essential amino acids. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 24, 1623-1628.
  21. QuickChick (2006): Version 1.0 – Software on amino acid recommendation for broilers. Evonik Degussa GmbH, Health & Nutrition, Animal Nutrition Services, Hanau.
  22. Rajkumar, U., Reddy, M. R., Rama Rao, S. V., Radhika, K. & Shanmugam, M. (2011). Evaluation of growth, carcass, immune response and stress parameters in naked neck chicken and their normal siblings under tropical winter and summer temperatures. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 24, 509-516.
  23. Ravindran, V. (2006). Broiler nutrition in New Zealand-challenges and strategies. Available at: www.feedinfo.com
  24. Schmidt, C. J., Persia, M. E., Feierstein, E., Kingham, B. & Saylor, W. W. (2009). Comparison of a modern broiler line and a heritage line unselected since the 1950s. Poultry Science, 88, 2610–2619.
  25. Svihus, B., Sacranie, A. Denstadli, V., and Choct, M. (2010). Nutrient utilization and functionality of the anterior digestive tract caused by intermittent feeding and inclusion of whole wheat in diets for broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 89, 2617–2625.
  26. Svihus, B., Sacranie, A. Denstadli, V. & Choct, M. (2010). Nutrient utilization and functionality of the anterior digestive tract caused by intermittent feeding and inclusion of whole wheat in diets for broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 89, 2617–2625.
  27. Turkyilmaz, M. K. (2008). Effect of stocking density on stress reaction in broiler chickens during summer. Turkish Journal of Veterinary in Animal Science, 32, 31-36.
  28. Wijtten, P. J. A., Hangoor, E., Sparla, J. K. W. M. & Verstegen, M. W. A. (2010). Dietary amino acid levels and feed restriction affect small intestinal development, mortality, and weight gain of male broilers. Poultry Science, 89, 1424-1439.
  29. Wijtten, P. J. A., Hangoor, E., Perdok, H. & Sparla, J. K. W. M. (2008). The effect of early life feed restriction on performance and mortality of male broilers. Book of abstracts of the XXIII World's Poultry Congress, Brisbane, Australia, June 30 - July 4, p. 234-234.
  30. 38.    Zulkifli, I., Liew, P. K., Israf, D. A., Omar, A. R. & Hair-Bejo, M. (2003). Effect of early age feed restriction and heat conditioning on heterophil/lymphocyte ratios, heat shock protein 70 expression and body temperature of heat-stressed broiler chickens.JournalofThermalBiology, 28, 217-222.