Evaluation of nutritive value of perceptible compounds of corn-steep liquor by ‎tannins extracted from raisin by-products as a protein source in ruminant nutrition

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, ‎Iran

2 Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lorestan University, ‎Khorramabad, Iran


This experiment was designed to survey the nutritive value and estimate protected-protein level of Protanomix as a new protein source and compare it with soybean meal. Protanomix is a brown powder by separating the precipitate produced from the reaction of tannin with corn-steep liquor. Crude protein (CP) and metabolizable energy (ME) in this protein source is nearly similar to soybean meal, and more than 80% of its protein content is insoluble. In this study, potential of in vitro gas production in Protanomix was significantly (P˂0.001) lower than the control treatment (soybean meal); however, substitution of soybean meal at different levels of Protanomix in experimental diets did not lead to significant changes in gas production parameters (P˃0.05). Comparing Protanomix with soybean meal (control) showed that in vitro truly degraded dry matter (IVTDDM), estimated metabilizable energy (ME) and pH were similar (P˃0.05). However, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), apparently in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMAD) and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3) were significantly higher in soybean meal (P˂0.01) than Protanomix, while partitioning factor (PF), microbial protein synthesis (MPS) and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS) were greater in Protanomix than soybean meal (P˂0.05). Nonetheless, when soybean meal was substituted with different levels of Protanomix in the experimental diets, only concentration of ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3) was significantly decreased (P˂0.001).


  1. Abarghuei, M.J., Rouzbehan, Y. & Zamiri, M.J. (2014). Effect of non-extracted and extracted pomegranate-peel on in vitro gas production parameters of inoculum of Ghezel sheep. of Ruminant Research, 2 (2), 37-59. (In Farsi)
  2. O.A.C. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington DC.
  3. Alipour, D. & Rouzbehan, Y. (2007). Effect on ensiling grape pomace and addition of polyethylene glycol on in vitro gas production and microbial biomass yield. Animal Feed Science Technology, 137 (1-2), 138-149.
  4. Alipour, D., Tabatabaei, M.M., Zamani, P., Aliarabi. H., Saki, A.A. & Zamani, Z. (2010). Determination of chemical composition and gas production parameters of raisin by-product. Animal Science Research (Agricultural Science), 20 (1), 109-118. (In Farsi)
  5. Aminifard, Z., Chaji, M. & Mohammadabadi, T. (2016). Determination the nutritional value of wild pistachio leaf and its use in sheep feeding. Iranian Journal of Animal Science, 47 (1), 135-144. (In Farsi)
  6. Azarfar, A., Fadaeifar, A., Azizi, A. & Koolivand, A. (2020a). Process of tannin extraction from raisin by-products. Retrieved November, 7, 2020, Iran Patent Office, from https://ipm.ssaa.ir/Search-Result?page=1&DecNo=139950140003003421&RN=102791.
  7. Azarfar, A., Fadaeifar, A., Azizi, A. & Koolivand, A. (2020b). Process of production of feedstuff with high bypass protein for ruminants. Retrieved November, 29, 2020, Iran Patent Office, from https://ipm.ssaa.ir/Search-Result?page=1&DecNo=139950140003005153&RN=103004.
  8. Azizi, A., Papi, N., Sharifi, A., Azarfar, A. & Kiani, A. (2016). Effect of different levels of corn steep liquor on the activity of hydrolytic enzymes in different fractions of rumen liquor and nitrogen metabolism in moghani- male lambs. Animal Science Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi), 30 (115), 255-270. (In Farsi)
  9. Bakhshizadeh, , Taghizadeh, A., Janmohammadi, H. & Alijani, S. (2013). The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) supplementation on in vitro kinetics of pistachio epicarp. Journal of Livestock Research, 2 (1), 11-20. (In Farsi)
  10. Bhatta, R., Uyeno, Y., Tajima, K., Takenaka, A., Yabumoto, Y., Nonaka, I., Enishi, O. & Kurihara, M. (2009). Difference in the nature of tannins on in vitro ruminal methane and volatile fatty acid production and on methanogenic archaea and protozoal populations. Journal of Dairy Science, 92 (11), 5512-5522.
  11. Blümmel, M., Steingss, H. & Becker, K. (1997). The relationship between in vitro gas production, in vitro microbial biomass yield and 15N incorporation and its implications for the prediction of voluntary feed intake of roughages. British Journal of Nutrition, 77, 911-921.
  12. Broderick, G. & Kang, J. H. (1980). Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro Journal of Dairy Science, 63, 64-75.
  13. Chaji, M., Aminifard, Z. & Heydari, M. (2015). Investigation of digestion and fermentation parameters of diets contain of Black mulberry leaves. Animal Production, 18 (4), 719-728. (In Farsi)
  14. Combs, C.A. (2016). Tannins, Biochemistry, Food Sources and Nutritional Properties. Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
  15. Danesh mesgaran, M (2009). Advanced In Vitro Methods for Animal Science Researches (Special View on Agriculture By-Products in Animal Nutrition). Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publication.
  16. Dousti, F., Ghoorchi, T., Sepahvand, A., Dastar, B. & Azarfar, A. (2017). The effect of different levels olive cake in fermentation parameters, enzyme cellulytic and the rumen microbial protein production Lory male lambs. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 9 (4), 424-436. (In Farsi)
  17. Ebadi, M., Mohammadabadi, T., Tabatabaei Vakili, S., Chaji, M. Mirzadeh, Kh. (2016). The study of the effect of diets containing Subabul plant on digestibility and rumen fermentation and some blood parameters of Arabia sheep. Iranian Veterinary Journal, 12 (3), 58-68. (In Farsi)
  18. Getachew, G., Makkar, H.P.S. & Becker, K. (2001). Method of polyethylene glycol application to tannin-containing browses to improve microbial fermentation and efficiency of microbial protein synthsis from tannin- containing browses. Animal Feed Science Technology, 92, 51-57.
  19. Khoramzadeh, L., Mohammadabadi, T., Mamouei., M., Chaji, M. & Sari, M. (2016). The comparison of degradability, digestion and microbial fermentation of siris leaves or silk tree instead of the alfalfa in cow and buffalo of Khuzestan. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 8 (4), 602-615. (In Farsi)
  20. Licitra, G., Hernandez, T.M. & Van Soest, P.G. (1996). Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science Technology, 57, 347-358.
  21. Makkar, H.P.S. (2000). Quantification of Tannins in Tree and Shrub Foliage, a Laboratuary Manual. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  22. Marten, G.C. & Barnes, R. F. (1980). Prediction of energy digestibility of forages with in vitro rumen fermentation and fungal enzyme systems. In standardaztion of analytical methodology for feeds. edited by Pigden, W. G. et al. Ottawa: Proc. Int. Workshop Standardization Anal. Methodol. Feeds IDRC-134e. 67-71.
  23. McSweeney, C.S., Palmar, B., McNeill, D.M. & Krause, D.O. (2001). Microbial interactions with tannins: nutritional consequences for ruminants. Animal Feed Science Technology, 91(1-2), 83-93.
  24. Menke K. H. & Steingass H. (1988). Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development, 28, 7-55.
  25. Min, B.R., Attwood, G.T., McNabb, W.C., Molan, A.L. & Barry, T.N. (2005). The effect of condensed tannins from Lotus corniculatus on the proteolytic activities and growth of rumen bacteria. Animal Feed Science Technology, 121 (1-2), 45-58.
  26. Mojadam, A., Chaji, M., Mohammadabadi, T. & Tabatabaei Vakili, S. (2015). Feeding value of silybum marianum for sheep and its effect on fiber and protein digestion. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 7 (3), 267-277. (In Farsi)
  27. National Research Council, (2007). Nutrient requirements of small ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids. National Academy of Sciences.
  28. Ndemanisho, E.E., Kimoro, B.N., Mtengeti, E.J. & Muhikambele, V.R.M. (2006). The potential of Albizia lebbeck as a supplementary feed for goats in Tanzania. Agroforestry Systems, 67(1), 85-91.
  29. Olmos Colmenero, J. J. & Broderick, G. A. (2006). Effect of dietary crude protein concentration on milk production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 89(5), 704-1712.
  30. Ørskov, and I. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 92(2), 499-503.
  31. Patra, A.K. (2012). Dietary Phytochemicals and Microbes. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg New York London.
  32. Priolo, A., Waghorn, G.C., Lanza, M., Biondi, L. & Pennisi, P. (2000). Polyethylene glycol as a means for reducing the impact of condensed tannins in carob pulp: effects on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Journal of Animal Science, 78, 810-816.
  33. Rahimi, A., Naserian, A.A., Valizadeh, R., Tahmasbi, A. & Shahdadi, A. (2013). Effect of replacing different levels of alfalfa hay with pistachio hull on feed intake, digestibility of nutrients, rumen fermentative parameters, blood metabolites and nitrogen balance in Balochi male lambs. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 5 (3), 190-200. (In Farsi)
  34. Razmazar, V., Torbatinejad, N.M., Seifdavati, J. & Zerehdaran, S. (2016). Effect of different varieties of pomegranate peels (Torsh Jangali Gorgan, malas Behshahr and Shirin kolbad) on dry matter digestibility, number of protozoa and methane production in vitro. Journal of Ruminant Research, 4 (2), 111-132. (In Farsi)
  35. Seifdavati, J., Islami, Z., Abdi Benemar, H., Mirzaei Aghje Gheshlagh, F. & Seyed Sharifi, r. (2017). Green pea (Pisum sativum) pods phenolic components and their effects on in vitro ruminal digestibility and in vitro gas production. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 9 (3), 284-299. (In Farsi)
  36. Shakeri, P., Aghashahi, A.R., Mostafavi, H. & Mirzaee, M. (2014). Effect of ensiling pistachio by-products on ruminal fermentation and methane emission mitigation using in vitro batch fermentation. Animal Science Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi), 28 (106), 43-54. (In Farsi)
  37. Sharifi, A., Chaji, M. & Vakili, S.A. (2017). Effect of treatment recycled poultry bedding with pomegranate peel tannin extract on in vitro digestion and fermentation activity of cow rumen microorganisms. Journal of Animal Production, 19 (2), 321- 336. (In Farsi)
  38. Silanikove, N., Landau, S., Or, D., Kababya, D., Bruckental, I. & Nitsan, Z. (2006). Analytical approach and effects of condensed tannins in carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) on feed intake, digestive and metabolic responses of kids. Livestock Science, 99 (1), 29-38.
  39. Sniffen, C.J., O'Connor, J.D., Van Soest, P.G., Fox, D.G. & Russel, J.B. (1992). A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: II. Carbohydrate and protein availability. Journal of Animal Science, 70(11), 3562-3577.
  40. Tabatabaei, M.M., Souri, M. & Nik-Khah, A. (1992). Determination of nutritive value of grape residues in growing lamb ration (Mehraban sheep). Iranian Journal of Agriculture Sience. 23 (2), 43-52. (In Farsi)
  41. Vahdani, N., Dehghan Banadaky, M., Rezayazdi, K. & Khalighi-Sigaroodi, F. (2016). Effects of semi-pure tannin usage, on crude protein fractions of soy bean meal and canola meal by CNCPS. Iranian Journal of Animal Science, 47 (2), 261-270. (In Farsi)
  42. Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B. & Lewis, A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3597.
  43. Vermeris, W. & Nicholson, R. (2008). Phenolic Compounds Biochemistry. Springer Science + Business Media.
  44. Yarahmadi, B., Chaji, M., Boujarpour, M., Mirzadeh, Kh. & Rezaei, M. (2017). Effects of sainfoin tannin treated by water or urea on microbial population, gas production parameters, digestibility and in vitro Iranian Veterinary Journal, 13 (3), 97-115. (In Farsi)
  45. Yildiz, S., Kaya, I., Unal, Y., Aksu, D., Kaya, S., Cenesiz, M., Kaya, M. & Oncuer, A. (2005). Digestion and body weight change in Tuj lambs receiving oak (Quercus hartwissiana) leaves with and without PEG. Animal Feed Science Technology, 122 (1-2), 159-172.