Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 M. Sc. Graduate, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center, Shahrekord, Iran

Abstract

The objective of this study was to compare solvent soybean meal with extruded soybean meal at 135°C on performance and metabolic status of fresh Holstein cows. Twenty-four Holstein cows (BW± SD; 614.45± 28.33) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental treatments from caving until 21 days in milk: 1- control (containing solvent soybean meal; SSBM) and 2- experimental (containing extruded soybean meal; ESBM). Cows were housed in individual stalls, fed with total mixed ration, and feed offered and ort were recorded daily. Milk yield was recorded daily and milk sampls were taken weekly to determine its composition. Body weight and body condition score of cows were determined at immediately after calving and 21 DIM. Dry matter intake in ESBM cows was greater than SSBM cows (P˂ 0.01). Cows fed ESBM produced 3.71 kg/d more milk than SSBM cows (P< 0.05). Milk fat content in ESBM cows was lower than SSBM cows (P<0.05). The ESBM cows had lower serum glucose concentration (P<0.01) and higher cholesterol (P<0.01) than SSBM cows. Rectal temperature, BCS and BW changes, and feed efficiency were not different between treatments (P>0.1). Overall, the results of this study showed that replacing solvent soybean meal with extruded soybean meal increased DMI and milk yield of fresh cows.

Keywords

  1. Amanlou, H., Farahani, T.A. & Farsuni, N.E. (2017). Effects of rumen undegradable protein supplementation on productive performance and indicators of protein and energy metabolism in Holstein fresh cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 100(5), 3628-3640.
  2. Arhami, I.S., Ghorbani, G.R., Karegar, S., Sefidmazgi, A.S. & Naderi, N. (2015). Processed soybean as a replacement for soybean meal on N retention in milk of Holstein cows. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, 9(1), 41-50.
  3. Block, E., Muller, L. D., Griel Jr, L. C. & Garwood, D. L. (1981). Brown midrib-3 corn silage and heat extruded soybeans for early lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 64(9), 1813-1825.
  4. Bobe, G., Young, J. W. & Beitz, D. C. (2004). Invited review: pathology, etiology, prevention, and treatment of fatty liver in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 87(10), 3105-3124.
  5. Broderick, G. A. (1986). Relative value of solvent and expeller soybean meal for lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 69(11), 2948-2958.
  6. Broderick, G. A., Ricker, D. B. & Driver, L. S. (1990). Expeller soybean meal and corn by-products versus solvent soybean meal for lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa silage as sole forage. Journal of Dairy Science, 73(2), 453-462.
  7. Broderick, G. A., Uden, P., Murphy, M. L. & Lapins, A. (2004). Sources of variation in rates of in vitro ruminal protein degradation. Journal of Dairy Science, 87(5), 1345-1359.
  8. Chouinard, P. Y., Girard, V. & Brisson, G. J. (1997). Performance and profiles of milk fatty acids of cows fed full fat, heat-treated soybeans using various processing methods. Journal of Dairy Science, 80(2), 334-342.
  9. Faldet, M. A. & Satter, L. D. (1991). Feeding heat-treated full fat soybeans to cows in early lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, 74(9), 3047-3054.
  10. Fathi Nasri, M. H., Danesh Mesgaran, M., Kebreab, E. & France, J. (2007). Past peak lactational performance of Iranian Holstein cows fed raw or roasted whole soybeans. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 87(3), 441-447.
  11. Ferguson, J. D., Galligan, D. T., Blanchard, T. & Reeves, M. (1993). Serum urea nitrogen and conception rate: the usefulness of test information. Journal of Dairy Science, 76(12), 3742-3746.
  12. Flis, S.A. & Wattiaux, M.A. (2005). Effects of parity and supply of rumen-degraded and undegraded protein on production and nitrogen balance in Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science, 88(6), 2096-2106.
  13. Giallongo, F., Oh, J., Frederick, T., Isenberg, B., Kniffen, D. M., Fabin, R. A. & Hristov, A. N. (2015). Extruded soybean meal increased feed intake and milk production in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 98(9), 6471-6485.
  14. Harper, M. T., Oh, J., Melgar, A., Nedelkov, K., Räisänen, S., Chen, X., Martins, C. M. M. R., Young, M., Ott, T. L., Kniffen, D. M., Fabin, R. A. & Hristov, A. N. (2019). Production effects of feeding extruded soybean meal to early-lactation dairy cows. Journal of dairy science, 102(10), 8999-9016.
  15. Harris, B., Jr. (1995). MUN and BUN values can be valuablemanagement tools. Feedstuffs, 67(42):14.
  16. Henson, J.E., Schingoethe, D.J. & Maiga, H.A. (1997). Lactational evaluation of protein supplements of varying ruminal degradabilities. Journal of Dairy Science, 80(2), 385-392.
  17. Ipharraguerre, I. R. & Clark, J. H. (2005). Impacts of the source and amount of crude protein on the intestinal supply of nitrogen fractions and performance of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 88, E22-E37.
  18. Isenberg, B. J., Hristov, A. N., Kniffen, D. M., Lee, C., Heyler, K. S., Cassidy, T. W. & Fabin, R. A. (2012). Effect of temperature during drying and mechanical extrusion on soybean meal protein in situ degradability and in vitro digestibility. Journal of Dairy Science, 95(Suppl. 2):216.
  19. Ji, P. & Dann, H.M. (2013). Negative protein balance: Implications for transition cows. In Proceedings Cornell Nutrition Conference, 14-19 Oct, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, pp: 101-112.
  20. Komaragiri, M.V. & Erdman, R.A. (1997). Factors affecting body tissue mobilization in early lactation dairy cows. 1. Effect of dietary protein on mobilization of body fat and protein. Journal of Dairy Science, 80(5), 929-937.
  21. Larsen, M., Lapierre, H. & Kristensen, N.B. (2014). Abomasal protein infusion in postpartum transition dairy cows: Effect on performance and mammary metabolism. Journal of Dairy Science, 97(9), 5608-5622.
  22. Mathew, B., Eastridge, M. L., Oelker, E. R., Firkins, J. L. & Karnati, S. K. R. (2011). Interactions of monensin with dietary fat and carbohydrate components on ruminal fermentation and production responses by dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 94(1), 396-409.
  23. National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 6th rev. ed. Nati. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC.
  24. Palmquist, D. L. & Conrad, H. R. (1978). High fat rations for dairy cows. Effects on feed intake, milk and fat production, and plasma metabolites. Journal of Dairy science, 61(7), 890-901.
  25. Reynal, S. M. & Broderick, G. A. (2003). Effects of feeding dairy cows protein supplements of varying ruminal degradability. Journal of Dairy Science, 86(3), 835-843.
  26. Ruegsegger, G. J. & Schultz, L. H. (1985). Response of high producing dairy cows in early lactation to the feeding of heat-treated whole soybeans. Journal of Dairy Science, 68(12), 3272-3279.
  27. Sadr Erhami, E., Ghorbani, G., Kargar, S. & Sadeghi sefid Mazgi, A. (2015). Effect of feeding processed soybean as replacement for soybean meal on performance, physically effective fiber of diet, feed intake, and chewing behavior of mid-lactating Holstein dairy cows. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Clinical Science, 2: 87-102. (In Persian).
  28. Schwab, C. & G. Foster. (2009). Maximizing milk components and metabolizable protein utilization through amino acid formulation. In Proceedings Cornell Nutrition Conference, 14-19 Oct, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, pp: 1-15.
  29. Schwab, C. G. & Broderick, G. A. (2017). A 100-Year Review: Protein and amino acid nutrition in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 100(12), 10094-10112.
  30. Van Soest, P. V., Robertson, J. B., & Lewis, B. A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of dairy science, 74(10), 3583-3597.
  31. Wheelock, J. B., Rhoads, R. P., Vanbaale, M. J., Sanders, S. R. & Baumgard, L.H. (2010). Effects of heat stress on energetic metabolism in lactating Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 93(2), 644-655.
  32. Wildman, E. E., Jones, G. M., Wagner, P. E., Boman, R. L., Troutt Jr, H. F. & Lesch, T. N. (1982). A dairy cow body condition scoring system and its relationship to selected production characteristics. Journal of Dairy Science, 65(3), 495-501.
  33. Wu, Z. & Satter, L. D. (2000). Milk production during the complete lactation of dairy cows fed diets containing different amounts of protein. Journal of Dairy Science, 83(5), 1042-1051