Effect of acetic acid treating and autoclaving of bitter vetch on nutrients degradability, protozoa counts, metabolisable protein and CNCPS protein fractionation

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Arak University, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Arak University, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Arak University, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Iran


The present study was evaluated the effects of acetic acid treating and autoclaving the bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) on nutrients degradability, protozoa counts, some ruminal parameters, and metabolisable protein. Three Farahani permanent rumen-canulated sheep were used in a 3×3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Three experimental treatments were; 1) raw bitter vetch, 2) chemical processed bitter vetch, and 3) physical processed bitter vetch. Treating bitter vetch with 8% acid acetic and its autoclaving (121 ˚C, 117 Kpa, 20 min) were considered as chemical, and physical processing, respectively. The incubation times for in situ experiment were 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h. Metabolisable protein was estimated based on in situ data as well. The results cleared that both processing methods (i.e. chemical and physical) reduced the degradation of dry matter and protein in the rumen which physical treating was more effective in this reduction. However the processing methods did not change metabolisable protein content of treatments. The results of protein fractionation showed that autoclaving caused to reduce the A and B1 fractions and increased the slow degradable fractions (P<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration was tended to be significant (P=0.06). The protozoa count increased in rumen fluid of sheep fed autoclaved bitter vetch. The results of the current study showed that both chemical (treating with acetic acid) and physical processing (autoclaving) transferred the protein degradation from the rumen into small intestine and the effect of physical treating (autoclave) was more relevant.  


  1. Agricultural and Food Research Council. (1992). Energy and Protein requirements of ruminants. Technical committee on responses to nutrients. CAB International. Wallingford, U.K.
  2. Aguilera, J. F., Bustos, M. & Molina, E. (1992). The degradation of legume seed meals in the rumen: effect of heat treatment. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 36, 101-112.
  3. Aldrich, C. G., Merchen, N. R., Nelson, D. R. & Barmore, J. A. (1995). The effects of roasting temperature applied to whole soybeans on site of digestion by steers: II. Protein and amino acid digestion. Journal of Animal Science, 73, 2131-2140.
  4. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. (13th ed.). AOAC, Washington, DC.
  5. Arabestani, A., Kadivar, M., Shahedi, M. & Goli, S. A. H. (2011). Structural and antioxidant characteristics of bitter vetch and its effect on oxidative indices of sunflower oil. New Techniques in Food Science. 2, 3-14. (in Farsi)
  6. Atwal, A. S., Milligan, L. P. & Young, B. A. (1974). Effects of volatile fatty acid treatment on the protection of protein in the rumen. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 54, 393-398.
  7. Broderick, G. A. & Kang, J. H. (1980). Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. Journal of Dairy Science, 54, 1176-1183.
  8. Cros, P., Benchaar, C., Bayourthe, C., Vernay, M. & Moncoulon, R. (1991). In situ evaluation of the ruminal and intestinal degradability of extruded whole lupin seed nitrogen. Journal of Reproduction Nutrition Development, 31, 575-583.
  9. Dehority, B. A. (2003). Rumen Microbiology. First published. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data. Nottingham University Press.
  10. Demjanec, B., Merchen, N. R., Cremin, J. D., Aldrich, C. G. & Berger, L. L. (1995). Effect of roasting on site and extent of digestion of soybean meal by sheep: I. Digestion of nitrogen and amino acids. Journal of Animal Science, 73, 824-834.
  11. Eghbali, F., Kafilzadeh, F., Hozhabri, S., Afshar, M. & Kazemi-Bonchenari, M. (2011). Treating canola meal changes in situ degradation, nutrient apparent digestibility and protein fractions in sheep. Small Ruminant Research, 96, 136-139.
  12. El-Waziry, A. M., Nasser, M. E. A. & Sallam, S. M. A. (2005). Processing methods of soybean meal: 1- Effect of roasting and tannic acid treated-soybean meal on gas production and rumen fermentation in vitro. Journal of Applied Science Research, 3, 313-320.
  13. Goelema, J. O., Smits, A., Vaessen, L. M. & Wemmers A. (1999). Effects of pressure toasting, expander treatment and pelleting on in vitro and in situ parameters of protein and starch in a mixture of broken peas, lupins and faba beans, lupins and faba beans. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 78, 109-126.
  14. Hadad, S. G. (2006). Bitter vetch grains as a substitute for soybean meal for growing lambs. Livestock Science, 99, 221-225.
  15. Kafilzadeh, F., SahebiAla, M. & Heidary, N. (2013). The effect of physical and chemical treatments of canola seed varieties on crude protein fractions using CNCPS and in vitro gas production. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 9 (6), 1411-1421.
  16. Kazemi-Bonchenari, M., Salem, A.Z.M., & Lopez, S. (2017). Influence of barley grain particle size and treatment with citric acid on digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in Holstein calves. Animal, 11, 1295-1302
  17. Khorasani, G. R., Robinson, P. H. & Kennelly, J. J. (1989). Effect of chemical treatment on in vitro and in situ degradation of canola meal crude protein. Journal of Dairy Science, 72, 2074-2081.
  18. Khorasani, G. R., Robinson, P. H. & Kennelly, J. J. (1993). Effects of canola meal treated with acetic acid on rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 76, 1607-1616.
  19. Kirkpatrick, B. K. & Kennely, J. J. (1987). In situ degradability of protein and dry matter from single protein sources and from a total diet. Journal of Animal Science, 65, 567-576.
  20. Licitra, G., Mernandez, T. M. & Van Soest, P. J. (1996). Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 57, 347-358.
  21. Lin, C. & Kung, L. (1999). Heat treated soybeans and soybean meal in ruminant nutrition. Technical Bull. American Soybean Association & United Soybean Board, 1-18.
  22. McDonald, P., Edwards, R. A., Greenhalgh, J. F. D., Morgan, C. A., Sinclair, L. A. & Wilkinson, R. G. (2011). Animal Nutrition. 7th edition; Longman Group UK, Harlow, UK, 693.
  23. Mohamed, D. E. & Smith, R. H. (1977). Measurement of protein degradation in the rumen. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 1 (36), 52-59.
  24. Moini, M. M., Azari-Torbat, M. & Amanlou, H. (2010). Evaluation the feeding value, degradability and optimum level of bitter vetch in lactating dairy cows. Animal Production Journal, 12 (2), 51-59. (in Farsi)
  25. Moshtaghi nia, S. A. & Ingalls, J. R. (1992). Effect of heating on canola meal protein degradation in the rumen and digestion in the lower gastrointestinal tract of steers. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 72, 83-88.
  26. Mustafa, A. F., Christensen, D. A., McKinnon, J. J. & Newkirk, R. (2000). Effects of stage of processing of canola seed on chemical composition and protein quality of canola products for ruminants. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 80, 211-214.
  27. National Research Council. (2007). Nutrient requirements of small ruminants: Sheep, goats, cervids and new world camelids. National Academy Press, Washington DC.
  28. Okba, M. M., Abdel-Jaleel, G. A., Yosif, M. F. & ElDeeb, J. S. (2017). Vicia ervilia L. seeds newly explored biological activities. Cogent Biology, 3, 1299-1307.
  29. Olawoye, B. T., Gbadamosi, A. O., & Yildiz, F. (2017). Effect of different treatments on in vitro protein digestibility, antinutrients, antioxtidant properties and mineral composition of Amaranthus viridis seed. Cogent Food and Agriculture, 3, 1296-1302.
  30. Ørskov, E. R. & McDonald, I. (1979). The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighed according to rate of passage. Journal of Agriculture Science (Camb.), 92, 499-503.
  31. Ørskov, E. R. & Miller, E. L. (1988). Protein evaluation in ruminants. In: Ørskov E.R. (Edition) Feed Science. Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers BV, 103-127.
  32. Petterson, D. S. & Mackintosh, J. B. (1994). The chemical composition and nutritive value of Australian grain legumes. Grain Research and Development Corporation, Canberra, 13-16.
  33. Robinson, P. H. & McNiven, M. A. (1993). Nutritive value of raw and roasted sweet white lupins (lupinus albus) for lactating dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 43, 275-290.
  34. Sadeghi, G. H., Pourreza, J., Samei, A. & Rahmani, H. (2009). Chemical composition and some anti-nutrient content of raw and processed bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed for use as feeding stuff in poultry diet. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 41, 85-93.
  35. Seifdavati, J. & Taghizadeh, A. (2012). Effects of moist heat treatment on ruminal nutrient degradability of and in vitro intestinal digestibility of crude protein from some of legume seeds. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 10 (2), 390-397.
  36. Tamminga, S., van Vuuren, A. M., van der Koelen, C. J., Ketelaar, R. S. & van der Togt, P. L. (1990). Ruminal behavior of structural carbohydrates, non-structural carbohydrates and crude protein from concentrate ingredients in dairy cows. Netherlands Journal of Agriculture Science, 38, 513-526.
  37. Ushida, K. & Jouany, J. P. (1985). Effect of protozoa on rumen protein degradation in sheep. Reproduction Nutrition Development, 25 (6), 1075-1081.
  38. Van Soest, P. J. (1989). On the digestibility of bound N in distiller's grains: A reanalysis Procedure. Cornell Nutrition Conference. Syracuse, NY. pp. 185-189.
  39. Van Soest, P. J. (1994). Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2nd edition; Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  40. Van Straalen, W.M. & Tamminga S. (1990). Protein degradation in ruminant diets. In: Wiseman J., Cole D.J.A. (Editions.), Feed Evaluation. Butterworth, London, 55-72.
  41. Vincini, J. L., Clark, J. H. & Crooker, B. A. (1983). Effectiveness of acetic acid and formaldehyde for preventing protein degradation in the rumen. Journal of Dairy Science, 66, 350-358.
  42. Waltz, D. M. & Loerch, S. C. (1986). Effect of acid and alkali treatment of soybean meal on nitrogen utilization by ruminants. Journal of Animal Science, 1 (63), 879-887.
  43. Waghorn, G. C. (2008). Beneficial and detrimental effects of dietary condensed tannins for sustainable sheep and goat production-Progress and challenges. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 147, 116-139.