Investigation the buffering capacity of several conventional buffer compounds in feeding of ruminant animals by acid titration method and their effect on gas production parameters

Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. Student of Animal Nutrition, Department of Animal Science, Khuzestan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 63517-73637, Mollasani, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, Khuzestan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 63517-73637, Mollasani, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Animal Science, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


The aim of present experiment was to investigate the buffering capacity of some buffers or alkalizers, their effect on digestion and fermentation of high concentration diets. The concentration of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 g in 100 ml from different buffers and alkalizing agents including: sodium bicarbonate, sodium sesquicarbonate, magnesium oxide, magnesium carbonate, sodium bentonite, zeolite and combined buffer (0.75% sodium bicarbonate+ 0.75% sodium sesquicarbonate) was used. The initial pH of the buffer solution, the amount of consumed hydrochloric acid for abrupt changes of pH to 5.2 or below it, and the final pH was registered. The lowest amount of the hydrochloric acid was consumed for solutions containing sodium bentonite, magnesium oxide, magnesium carbonate and control for suddently dropping their pH; and highest amount by sodium sesquicarbonate, combined buffer and sodium bicarbonate, respectively. The zeolite buffer also indicated a proper resistance to pH changes and did not have a significant difference with the combined buffer or sodium bicarbonate buffer. The treatments in gas production were included: control or basal diet without buffer, and amounts of 0.5 to 2% sodium bicarbonate, 0.5 to 2% sodium sesquicarbonate, 0.5% sodium bentonite, 2% magnesium carbonate, 1.5, 2 and 2.5% of zeolite and combined buffer, which were added to basal diet. The highest produced gas was in the sodium sesquicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, combined buffers and zeolite. Therefore, sodium sesquicarbonate, combined buffers, sodium bicarbonate and zeolite had the best position respectively, which were evaluated as suitable buffers for using in diets containing high concentration ingredients for feeding the ruminant animals.


  1. Aguerre, M. J., Wattiaux, M. A., Powell, J. M., Broderick, G. A. & Arndt, C. (2011). Effect of forage-to-concentrate ratio in dairy cow diets on emission of methane, carbon dioxide, and ammonia, lactation performance, and manure excretion. Journal of Dairy Science, 94, 3081-3093.
  2. Arambel, M. J., Wiedmeier, R. D., Clark, D. H., Lamb, R. C., Boman, R. L. & Walters, J. L. (1988). Effect of sodium bicarbonate and magnesium oxide in an alfalfa-based total mixed ration fed to early lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 71(1), 159-163.
  3. Askar, A. R., Guada, J. A., Gonzalez, J. M., de Vega, A. & Castrillo, C. (2011). Effects of sodium bicarbonate on diet selection and rumen digestion by growing lambs individually fed whole barley grain and a protein supplement at their choice. Animal feed science and technology, 164 (1), 45-52
  4. Bargo, F. L., Kolver, E & Delahoy, J. (2003). Invited review: production and digestion of supplemented dairy cows on pasture. Journal of Dairy Science, 86 (1), 1-42.
  5. Beauchemin, K. A. & Yang, W. Z. (2005). Effects of physically effective fiber on intake, chewing activity, and ruminal acidosis for dairy cows fed diets based on corn silage. Journal of Dairy Science, 88(6), 2117-2129.
  6. Bonsembiante, M., Chiericato, G. M. & Gallo, L. (1992). Sodium bicarbonate in diets based on silage for bovine meat production. Informatore Agrario (Italy).
  7. Campbell, M. K. & Farrell, S. O. (2006). Biochemistry (International Student Edition), 5th Ed. Thompson Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA, USA.
  8. Enemark, J. M. D. (2009). The monitoring, prevention and treatment of sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA): A review. Veterinary Journal, 176, 32–43
  9. Erdman, R. A. 1988. Dietary buffering requirements of the lactating dairy cow: A review. Journal of Dairy Science, 71,3246–3266
  10. García-González R, López, S., Fernández, M. & González, J.S. (2006). Effects of the addition of some medicinal plants on methane production in a rumen simulating fermenter (RUSITEC). International Congress Series.1293, 172-175
  11. Herod, E. L., Bechtle, R. M., Bartley, E. E. & Dayton, D. (1978). Buffering ability of several compounds in vitro and the effect of a selected buffer combination on ruminal acid production in vivo. Journal of Dairy Science, 61, 1114-1122.
  12. Horan, B., Faverdin, P., Delaby, L., Rath, M. & Dillon, P. (2006). The effect of strain of Holstein-Friesian dairy cow and pasture-based system on grass intake and milk production. Journal of Animal Science, 82 (04), 435-444
  13. Hoor, A. & Danesh Mesgaran, M. (2013). Determination of the capacity and index of buffering value of some chemical compounds and its effect on the acidity of diets containing different amounts of grass, hay in vitro. Master's thesis. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. (in Farsi)
  14. Hutjens, M. F. 1998. Strategic use of feed additives in dairy cattle nutrition. University of Illinois, Illini DairyNet Papers.from,
  15. Jafarpour Boroujeni, M. J., Danesh Mesgaran, M., Vakili, A. R. & Naserian, A. A. (2016). In vitro ruminal acid load and methane emission responses to supplemented lactating dairy cow diets with inorganic compounds varying in buffering capacities. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 6(4), 769-775
  16. Jafarpour Boroujeni, M., Vakili, A., Danesh Mesgaran, M. & Naserian, A. A. (2015). The effect of buffering capacity of mixed inorganic compounds on rumen acidogenic value diets with different forage to concentrate ratio in vitro, Congress of Research new in Animal Sciences 6-7 June., Birjand University, Iran, pp. 640-643. (in Farsi)
  17. Jones, M. L., Clark, J. D. & Michael, N. A. (2016). Effects of supplementing lactating dairy cow ration with sodium sesquicarbonate on reticulorumen pH, rumination, and dry matter. Journal of Animal Science, 94, 359.
  18. Kaplan, O., Deniz, S., Karsli, M. A., Nursoy, H. & Avci, M. (2010). Effects of sodium bicarbonate, magnesium oxide and dried sugar beet pulp in diets of dairy cows on milk yield, milk composition and rumen fluid and some blood parameters. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9(11), 1570-1574.
  19. Karimizandi, M. & Kafilzadeh, F. (2010). Effect of different sources of zeolites on microbial protein synthesis, protozoa population, kinetic of fermentation and pH different carbohydrate and protein source on in vitro method. Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science, Razi University. Master's Thesis. Iran. Abstract. (in Farsi)
  20. Kianoosh, Sh. (2012). Bentonite The clay of 1000 uses. p170. (in Farsi)
  21. Khalifeh, M. J., Mohammadabadi, T., Chaji, M. Salari, S & Khalil, M. (2012). The effect of different levels of sodium bentonite on in vitro fermentation and digestibility of soybean meal. In: Proceedings of the 15th AAAP Animal Science Congress, 26-30 November hammasat University, Rangsit Campus, Thailand, pp. 3133-3135.
  22. Kohn, R. A., Dunlap, T. F. (1998). Calculation of the buffering capacity of bicarbonate in the rumen and in vitro. Journal of Animal Science, 76, 1702-1709.
  23. Krajcarski-Hunt, H., Plaizier, J. C., Walton, J. P., Spratt, R. McBride, B. W. (2002). Short communication: Effect of subacute ruminal acidosis on in situ fiber digestion in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 85, 570-573.
  24. Le Ruyet, P. & Tucker, W. B. (1992). Ruminal buffers: Temporal effects on buffering capacity and pH of ruminal fluid from cows fed a high concentrate diet. Journal of Dairy Science, 75, 1069–1077.
  25. Li, S., Danscher, A. M. & Plaizier, J. C. (2013). Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cattle: new developments in diagnostic aspects and feeding management. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 94 (1), 353-364.
  26. Marden, J. P., Julien, C., Monteils, V., Auclair, E., Moncoulon, R. & Bayourthe, C. (2008). How does live yeast differ from sodium bicarbonate to stabilize ruminal pH in high-yielding dairy cows? Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 3528-3535.
  27. Menke, K. H. & Steingass, H. (1988). Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal research and development,28, 7-55.
  28. Ørskov, E. R. & McDonald, I. (1979). The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science, 92(02), 499-503.
  29. Patra, A. K. & Yu, Z. T. (2013). Effects of gas composition in headspace and bicarbonate concentrations in media on gas and methane production, degradability, and rumen fermentation using in vitro gas production techniques. Journal of Dairy Science, 96, 4592-4600
  30. Plaizier, J. C., Krause, D. O., Gozho, G. N. & McBride, B. W. (2008). Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows: The physiological causes, incidence and consequences. Veterinary Journal, 176,21–31
  31. Qiao, J., Tan, Y. Z. L., Guan, L. L., Tang, S. X., Zhou, C. S., Han, X. F., Wang, M., Kang, J. H. & He, Z. X. 2015. Effects of hydrogen in headspace and bicarbonate in media on rumen fermentation, methane production and methanogenic population using in vitro gas production techniques. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 206, 28-19
  32. Santra, A., Chaturvedi, O. H., Tripathi, M. K., Kumar, R. & Karim, S. A. (2003). Effect of dietary sodium bicarbonate supplementation on fermentation characteristics and ciliate protozoal population in rumen of lambs. Small Ruminant Research, 47(3), 203-212.
  33. Schaefer, D. M., Wheeler, L. J., Noller, C. H., Keyser, R. B. & White, J. L. (1982). Neutralization of acid in the rumen by magnesium oxide and magnesium carbonate. Journal of Dairy Science, 65, 732
  34. Thomas, E. E. & Hall, M. W. (1984). Effect of sodium bicarbonate and tetra sodium pyrophosphate upon utilization of concentrate-and-roughage-based cattle diets: cattle studies. Journal of Animal Science, 59, 1309-1319
  35. Tucker, W. B., Hogue, J. F., Aslam, M., Lema, M., Martin, M., Owens, F. N., Shin, I. S., Le Ruyet, P. & Adams, G. D. (1992). A buffer value index to evaluate effects of buffers on ruminal milieu in cows fed high or low concentrate, silage, or hay diets. Journal of Dairy Science, 75, 811.