Investigating the effects of supplementing fattening lamb diet with small peptides of cottonseed meal on the digestibility and fermentation of nutrients in vitro

Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran


This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing fattening lamb diet with various levels of commercial supplement Fortide C on in vitro gas production and fermentation parameters, nutrients digestibility and activity of rumen microbial enzymes in vitro using rumen liquor of sheep. This supplement is produced from enzymatic hydrolysis of cottonseed meal as a source of small chain peptides. Dietary treatments were control diet (without Fortide C) and supplementing control diet with Fortide C at the levels of 2.35, 4.70 and 7.70 g/kg of diet on dry matter basis. Results showed that at 16, 24 and 48 h of incubation, the highest and the lowest volume of gas production (GP) were observed in the diet containing the highest level of Fortide C and control diet, respectively (P<0.05). The highest microbial protein production and estimated metabolizable energy (ME) were observed in the diet supplemented with the highest level of Fortide C compared to the control diet (P<0.05). However, other fermentation parameters and two-stage nutrients digestibility were not affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). Activity of carboxymethyl cellulase and alpha-amylase increased as the level of Fortide C increased in the diet compared to the control diet (P<0.05), while activity of microcrystalline cellulase and filter paper degrading activity were not affected by the experimental diets (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of present study showed that dietary supplementation of fattening lambs with 7.05 g Fortide C per kilogram dry matter of diet improved microbial protein synthesis and ME in vitro.


  1. Adibi, S. A., Lochs, H., Abumrad, N. N., Daniel, H. & Vazquez, J. A. (1993). Removal of glycylglutamine from plasma by individual tissues: mechanism and impact on amino acid fluxes in postabsorption and starvation. Journal of Nutrition, 123, 325-331.     
  2. Agarwal, N., Agarwal, I., Kamra, D. N. & Chaudhary, L. C. (2000). Diurnal variations in the activities of hydrolytic enzymes in different fractions of rumen contents of Murrah buffalo. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 18, 73-80.
  3. Agricultural and Food Research Council. (1992). Technical committee on responses of nutrients, Report No 9. Nutritive requirements of ruminant animal: Protein. Nutrition Abstract and Review., Series b, 62(12), 787-835, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon. 
  4. AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
  5. Blümmel, M., Karsli, A. & Russell, J. R. (2003). Influence of diet on growth yields of rumen micro-organisms in vitro and in vivo: Influence on growth yield of variable carbon fluxes to fermentation products. British Journal of Nutrition, 90, 625-634.
  6. Blümmel, M., Steingss, H. & Becker, K. (1997). The relationship between in vitro gas production, in vitro microbial biomass yield and 15N incorporation and its implications for the prediction of voluntary feed intake of roughages. British Journal of Nutrition, 77, 911-921.
  7. Broderick, G. & Kang, J. H. (1980). Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. Journal of Dairy Science, 63, 64-75.
  8. Carro, M. D. & Miller, E. L. (1999). Effect of supplementing a fibre basal diet with different nitrogen forms on ruminal fermentation and microbial growth in an in vitro semi-continuous culture system (RUSITEC). British Journal of Nutrition, 82, 149-157.
  9. Chamberlain, D. G., Robertson, S. & Choung, J. J. (1993). Sugars versus starch as supplements to grass silage: effects on ruminal fermentation and the supply of microbial protein to the small intestine, estimated from the urinary excretion of purine derivatives in sheep. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 63, 189-194.
  10. Cruz Soto, R., Muhammed, S. A., Newbold, C. J., Stewart, C. S. & Wallace, R. J. (1994). Influence of peptides, amino acids and urea on microbial activity in the rumen of sheep receiving grass hay and on the growth of rumen bacteria in vitro. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 49, 151-161.
  11. Dabrowski, K., Lee, K. & Rinchard, J. (2003). The smallest vertebrate, teleost FSH, can utilize synthetic dipeptide based diets. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 4225-4229.
  12. Feng, X. Y. & Ji, C. (2002). Relationship between peptide concentration and digestibility in chicken. Acta Agricultural University China, 7, 107-113. (in Chinese)
  13. Getachew, G., Makkar, H. P. S. & Becker, K. (2002). Tropical browses: contents of phenolic compounds, in vitro gas production and stoichiometric relationship between short chain fatty acid and in vitro gas production. Journal of Agricultural Science, 139, 341-352.
  14. Griswold, K. E., Hoover, W. H., Miller, T. K.  & Thayne, W. V. (1996). Effect of form of nitrogen on growth of ruminal microbes in continuous culture. Journal of Animal Science, 74, 483-491.
  15. Kadzere, C. T., Murphy, M. R., Silanikove, N. & Maltz, E. (2002). Heat stress in lactating dairy cows: a review. Livestock Production Science, 77, 59-91.
  16. Kotzamanis, Y. P., Gisbert, E., Gatesoupe, F. J., Zambonino, I. J.  & Cahu, C. (2007). Effects of different dietary levels of fish protein hydrolysates on growth, digestive enzymes, gut microbiota, and resistance to Vibrio anguillarum in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 147, 205-214.
  17. Li, L. L., Chen, Y. G., Tan, Z. L., Huang, R. L., Li, T. J. & Zhang, B. (2004). The effect of small peptide on nutrient digestibility in goats. Acta Pratacult. Sin, 13, 73-78. (in Chinese, with English abstract)
  18. Lindemann, M. D., Cromwell, G. L., Monegue, H. J., Cook, H., Soltwedel, K. T., Thomas, S. & Easter, R. A. (2000). Feeding value of an enzymatically digested protein for early-weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 78, 318-327.
  19. Marten, G. C. & Barnes, R. F. (1980). Prediction of energy digestibility of forages with in vitro rumen fermentation and fungal enzymes systems. In: Pidgen, W. J., Balch, C. C. & Graham, M. (Eds), Standardization of analytical methodology for feeds. (pp 61-71.) International Development Research Center, Ottawa.
  20. McAllan, A. B. (1991). Carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism in the forestomach of steers given untreated or ammonia treated barley straw diets supplemented with urea or urea plus fishmeal. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 33, 195-208.
  21. Menke, K. H. & Steingass, H. (1988). Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development, 28, 7-55.
  22. Menke, K.H., Raab, L., Salewski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D. & Schneider, W. (1979). The estimation of the digestibility and metabolisable energy content of ruminant feeding stuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor. Journal of Agricultural Science, 93, 217-222.
  23. Miller, J. L. (1959). Modified DNS method for reducing sugars. Analytical Chemistry, 31, 426-429.
  24. Nikkhah, A. & Amanlou, V. (1990). The importance of dietary protein for ruminants and its use in diets. Zanjan University Press. 223p. (in Farsi)
  25. Pan, Y. L., Webb Jr., K. E. (1998). Peptide-bound methionine sources for protein accretion and cell proliferation in primary cultures of ovine skeletal muscle. Journal of Nutrition, 128, 251-256.
  26. Payne, J. (1983). Peptide transport in bacteria: methods, mutants and energy coupling. Biochemical Society Transactions, 11, 794-798.
  27. Puchala, R., Pierzynowski, S. G., Wuliji, T., Goetsch, A. L., Sahlu, T., Lachica, M. & Soto-Navarro, S. A. (2002). Effects of small peptides or amino acids infused to a perfused area of the skin of Angora goats on mohair growth. Journal of Animal Science, 80, 1097-1104.
  28. Raghuvansi, S. K. S., Prasad, R., Tripathi, M. K. & Mishra, A. S. (2007). Effect of complete feed blocks or grazing and supplementation of lambs on performance, nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation, and rumen microbial enzymes. Animal, 1, 221-226.
  29. Russell, J. B., O’Connor, J. D., Fox, D. G., Van Soest, P. J. & Sniffen, C. J. (1992). A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: I. ruminal fermentation. Journal of Animal Science, 70, 3551-3561.
  30. Russi, J. P., Wallace, R. J. & Newbold, C. J. (2002). Influence of the pattern of peptide supply on microbial activity in the rumen simulating fermenter (RUSITEC). British Journal of Nutrition, 88, 73-80.
  31. Tilly, J. M. A. & Terry, R. A. (1963). A two stage technique for in vitro digestion of forage crops. Journal of the British Grassland Society, 18, 104-111.
  32. Van Soest, P. J. (1994). Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. Cornell University Press.
  33. Vercoe, P. E., Makkar, H. P. S. & Schlink, A. C. (2010). In vitro screening of plant resources for extra-nutritionalattributes in ruminants: nuclear and related methodologies. Springer Verlag Gmbh.
  34. Wang W. J., Yang, W. R., Wang, Y., Song, E. L., Liu, X. M. & Wan, F. C. (2013). Effects of Soybean Small Peptides on Rumen Fermentation and on Intestinal and Total Tract Digestion of Luxi Yellow Cattle. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 26, 72-81.
  35. Zhang, B., Xue, L. Q., Li, L. L., Chen, Y. G., Wen, G. H. & Hou, D. X. (2007). Effects of soybean small peptides on nitrogen balance, nutrient digestibility and several indices in the portal veinous plasma of goats. Small Ruminant Research, 72, 1-10.