Comparison of the effects of Zilmax® and different doses of Ajwain essential oil as β-agonist drugs on performance and serum biochemical metabolites in parental line of a commercial broiler

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasuj University, Iran

2 Associate Professor, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Poultry Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

4 Former M. Sc. Student, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with ajwain essential oil (EO) and zilmax® on performance, carcass traits and serum biochemistry of chicks that were reared under different thermal programs. Another purpose of present study was to explore cold stress effects on above-mentioned parameters. This study were done according to a Complete Randomized Design with 8 treatment. For this purpose, Four dietary treatments (basal diet, dietary addition of ajwainEO at 150 and 450 ppm and zilmax® at 1.6 ppm) each with corresponding replicates (24 replicate; n=192; one male chick in each individual cage as a replicate) were fed to chicks at two different thermal programming envirnment. The results showed that at normal temperature envirnment, dietary addition of zilmax® and 450 ppm Ajwain EO, have increased plasma levels of triglycerides at the end of the growing phase (29 d) compared to control. Cold stress significantly decreased performance and ralitive weight of bursa (P>0.05). In conclusion, ajwain EO and and zilmax® as a feed additive had no beneficial effects on performance and could not ameliorate the negative effects of cold stress on chicks.


  1. Alcicek, A., Bozkurt, M. & Cabuk, M. (2004). The effect of an essential oil combination derived from selected herbs growing wild in turkey and broiler. South African Journal of Animal Science, 33, 89-94.
  2. Avendaño-Reyes, L., Torres-Rodríguez, V., Meraz-Murillo, F. J., Pérez-Linares, C., Figueroa-Saavedra, F. & Robinson P. H. (2006). Effects of two ß-adrenergic agonists on finishing performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of feedlot steers. Journal of Animal Science, 84, 3259-3265.
  3. Boskabady, M. H., Rakhshandah, H. & Moetamedshariati, V. (1998). Bronchodilatory and anti-cholinergic effects of C. copticum on isolated guinea-pig tracheal chains. Medical Journal of Islamic Republic of Iran, 11, 329-334.
  4. Brenes, A., & Roura, E. (2010). Essential oils in poultry nutrition: Main effects and modes of action. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 158, 1-14.
  5. Cao, F. L., Zhang, X. H., Yu, W. W., Zhao, L. G. & Wang, T. (2012). Effect of feeding fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves on growth performance, meat quality, and lipid metabolism in broilers. Poultry Science, 91, 1210-1221.
  6. Council of the European Communities. (1986). Council Directive 86/469/EEC of 16 September 1986. Off. J. Eur. Commun. L275:36.
  7. Dalrymple, R. H., Baker, P. K., Gingher, P. E., Ingl, D. L., Pensack, J. M. & Ricks, C. A. (1984). A repartitioning agent to improve performance and carcass composition of broilers. Poultry Science, 63, 2376.
  8. Daneshyar, M., Kermanshahi, H. & Golian, A. (2007). Changes of blood gases, internal organ weight and performance of broiler chickens with cold induced ascites. Research journal of biological science, 2(7), 729-735.
  9. Daneshyar, M., Kermanshahi, H. & Golian, A. (2009). Changes of biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in broiler chickens with cold-induced ascites. Poultry Science, 88, 106-110.
  10. Daun, C., Johansson, M., Onning, G. & Akesson, B. (2001). Glutathione peroxidase activity, tissue and soluble selenium content in beef and pork in relation to meat ageing and pig RN phenotype. Food Chemistry, 73, 313-319.
  11. Dunshea, F. R., D’Souza, D. N., Pethic, D. W., Harper, G. S. & Warner, R. D. (2005). Effects of dietary factors and other metabolic modifiers on quality and nutritional value of meat. Meat Science, 71, 8-38.
  12. FDA. (2006). Freedom of Information Summary. Original New Animal Drug Application NADA 141-258. Zilmax (Zilpaterol hydrochloride). Type A Medicated Article for Cattle Fed in Confinement for Slaughter. Accessed Mar. 26, 2009.
  13. Gilani, A. H., Jabeen, Q., Ghayur, M. N., Janbaz, K. H. & Akhtar, M. S. (2005). Studies on the antihypertensive, antispasmodic, bronchodilator and hepatoprotective activities of the Carum copticum seed extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 98, 127-135.
  14. Hamano, Y., Yamazaki, S., Kume, K., Kobayashi, S. & Terashima, Y. (1998). Excessive levels of dietary protein and energy induce lake of growth promoting effects of clenbuterol in broilers. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science, 11, 566-572.
  15. Hangalapura, B. N.,  Nieuwland, M. G. B., de Vries Reilingh, G., Heetkamp, M. J. W., van den Brand, H., Kemp, B. & Parmentier, H. K. (2003). Effects of Cold Stress on Immune Responses and Body Weight of Chicken Lines Divergently Selected for Antibody Responses to Sheep Red Blood Cells. Poultry Science, 82, 1692-1700.
  16. Hassanzadeh, M., Buyse, J. & Decuypere, E. (2002). Further evidence for the involvement of cardiac b-adrenergic receptors in right ventricle hypertrophy and ascites in broiler chickens. Avian Pathology, 31, 177-181.
  17. Hood, R. L., Bailey, W. M. & Svoronos, D. (1978). The effect of dietary monoterpenes on the cholesterol level of eggs. Poultry Science, 57, 304-306.
  18. Kannan, G., Heath, J. L., Wabeck, C. J., Owens, S. L. & Mench, J. A. (1998). Elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations influence the onset of rigor mortis and meat color in broilers. Poultry Science, 77, 322-328.
  19. Kazemi Oskue, R., Behravan, J. & Ramezani, M. (2011). Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and antiviral activity of essential oil of Carum copticum from Iran. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, 1(2), 83-90.   
  20. Kheyrkhah, H., Towhidi, A., Moravej, H. & Mohammadi Arkhelu, M. (2011). Effects of different levels of zilpaterol hydrochloride on performance, carcass quality and some blood parameters of broilers. Iranian Journal of Animal Science, 43(1), 51-60. (in Farsi)
  21. Kırkpınar, F., H. Bora Ünlü, H. & Özdemir, G. (2011). Effects of oregano and garlic essential oils on performance, carcase, organ and blood characteristics and intestinal microflora of broilers. Livestock Science, 137, 219-225.
  22. Koohmaraie, M., Shakelford, S. D., Muggli-Cockett, N. E. & Stone, R.T. (1991). Effect of the ß-adrenergic agonist L644, 969 on muscle growth, endogenous proteinase activities, and post-mortem proteolysis in wether lambs. Journal of Animal Science, 69, 4823-4835.
  23. Lopez-Carlos, M. A., Ramirez, R. G., Aguilera-Soto, J. L., Arechiga, C. F., Mendez-Liorente, F. & Rudriguez, H. 2010. Effect of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth, diet digestibility, intake and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs. Livestock Science, 131(1), 23-30.
  24. Maini, S., Rastogi, S.K., Korde, J. P., Madan, A. K. & Shukla, S. K. (2007). Evaluation of oxidative stress and its amelioration through certain antioxidants in broilers during summer. The Journal of Poultry Science, 44, 339-347.
  25. Mersmann, H. J. (1998). Overview of the effects of â-adrenergic receptor agonists on animal growth including mechanisms of action. Journal of Animal Science, 76, 160-172.
  26. Mersmann, H. J. (2002). Beta-adrenergic receptor modulation of adipocyte metabolism and growth.  Journal of Animal Science, 80, 24-29.
  27. Mohammadi-Arekhlo, M., Towhidi, A., Moravej, H. & Zare Shahaneh, A. (2012). Effect of different levels of zilpaterol hydrochloride in two days on-two days off feeding program on performance, carcass quality and blood metabolites in Japanese quails. Animal Production Research, 1(3), 1-8.
  28. Nasir, Z. & Grashorn, M. A. (2010). Effects of Echinacea purpurea and Nigella sativa supplementation on broiler performance, carcass and meat quality, Journal of Animal Feed Science, 19, 94-104.
  29. Ocampo, L., Cortez, U., Sumano, H. & Avila, E. (1998). Use of low dose of clenbuterol to reduce incidence of ascites syndrome in broilers. Poultry Science, 77, 1297-1299.
  30. Tollba, A. A. H., Shabaan, S. A. M. & Abdel-Mageed, M. A. A. (2010). Effect of using aromatic herbal extract and blended with organic acids on productive and physiological performance of poultry. 2- The growth durind cold winter stress. Egyptian Poultry Science, 30(1), 229-248.
  31. Wardlaw, F. B., McCaskill, L. H. & Acton, J. C. (1973). Effects of postmortem muscle changes on poultry meat loaf properties. Journal of Food Science, 38, 421-423.
  32. Young, J. F., Stagsted, J., Jensen, S. K., Karlsson, A. H. & Henckel, P. (2003). Ascorbic Acid, α-Tocopherol, and Oregano Supplements Reduce Stress-Induced Deterioration of Chicken Meat Quality.  Poultry Science, 82, 1343-135.
  33. Zahin, M., Ahmad, I. & Aqil, F. (2010). Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of Carum copticum fruit extracts. Toxicology in Vitro, 24 (4), 1243-1249.