The influence of Ziziphus zizyphus fruit on in vitro fermentation parameters, protozoa pupolation and methane gas production

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran


In this expriment, the effect of different levels of Ziziphus zizyphus(ZZ) (0, 30 or 60 mg) on fermentation parameters, total protozoa population  and three sub family of protozoa  Entodiniinae, Ophryscolecinae, Diplodiniinae and family of Isotrichdaeandmethane gas production was assessed using in vitro method and a completely randomized design. The rate of gas production for the insoluble fraction (c) (P˂0.01) was decreased but (P˂0.01) fermentation potential (a+b) at 30 and 60 mg ZZ by was improved 3 and 6 percent respectively. Cumulative gas production at 24h was not significantly different among treatments; however methane production was decreased (P˂0.05). Ammonia nitrogen also was linearly decreased (P˂0.01) by 20.85 and 43.85 percent, respectively. Incorporation of 60 mg ZZ to the basal diet decreased acetate (P˂0.05) and increased propionate (P˂0.05) and ratio of acetate to propionate was decreased (P˂0.01) from 2.6 to 2.2. Total protozoa population (P˂0.01) and Entodinium count was decreased (P˂0.05). However Ophryscolexs numberincreased (P˂0.05). Based on this study, it is suggested that  supplementation of  ZZ  could  improve in vitro ruminal fluid fermentation in terms of potential extent of gas production (6%), reduction of methane losses (17.4%), NH3-N concentration (43.8%), acetate to propionate ratio (0.2 ratio)  and protozoal population.


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