Effect of feeding slow-release bolus of zinc, selenium and cobalt on growth performance and some blood metabolites of Markhoz male goats

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

2 Former M. Sc. Student, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Iran

5 Ph. D. Candidate, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran


This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of slow-release bolus containing zinc, selenium and cobalt on growth performance and blood parameters of Markhoz male goats for 60 days. Eighteen Markhoz male goats, 15 months of age with average weight of 24.4±5.1 kg were randomly divided into 2 groups (9 goats per group) including: 1) control group (basal diet without any mineral supplements and slow-release bolus and 2) bolus group (basal diet + one slow release bolus). The dry matter intake, average daily gain and feed efficiency were determined. Blood parameters were measured on days 30 and 60. Daily feed intake was similar among treatments. Daily weight gain (37.41 gr/day), plasma concentrations of vitamin B12 (185.05 IU/L) and Zinc (0.86 mg/L), the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase (167.31 IU/L) and whole blood glutathione peroxidase (261.28 IU/gr Hb) and serum T3 level (1.35 nmol/L) were lower in control group than group receiving bolus (P<0.05). The activity of creatine phosphokinase and serum T4 concentration were also significantly lower in group receiving bolus compared to control group (P<0.05). The overall results of this study showed that slow release bolus containing Zn, Se and Co could improve performance, blood glutathione peroxidase, vitamin B12 and tri-iodothyronine (T3) status in Markhoz goats compared with the group that received the basal diet without any mineral supplements.


  1. Aliarabi, H. & Fadayifar, A. (2013). Effect of slow-release bolus on some blood metabolites and lambing performance of ewes. The second international conference on agriculture and natural resources,2, 8-10.
  2. Alimohamady, R., Aliarabi, H., Bahari, A. A. & Dezfoulian, A. H. (2013). Influence of different amounts and sources of selenium supplementation on performance, some blood parameters, and nutrient digestibility in lambs. Biological Trace Element Research, 154, 45-54.
  3. Andres, S., Mane, M. C., Sanchez, J., Barrera, R. & Jimenez, A. (1996). Changes in GSHPx and muscle enzyme activities in lambs with nutritional myodegeneration following a single treatment with sodium selenite. Small Ruminant Research,23, 183-186.
  4. AOAC. (2000). Association of Official Analytical Chemist. In: Horwitz W (ed) Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, (17th ed). AOAC International, Maryland-Gaithersburg, USAA.
  5. Attia, A. N., Awadalla, S. A., Esmail, E. Y. & Hady, M. M. (1987). Role of some microelements in nutrition of water buffalo and its relation to production. 2. Effect of zinc supplementation. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 18, 91-100.
  6. Beckett, G. J. & Arthur, J. R. (2005). Selenium and endocrine systems. Journal of Endocrinology, 184, 455-465.
  7. Berger, L. B. (2006). Salt and trace mineral for livestock, poultry and other animals. Salt Institute.
  8. Bishehsari, SH., Tabatabaei, M. M., Aliarabi, H., Alipour, D., Zamani, P. & Ahmadi, A. (2010). Effect of dietary cobalt supplementation on plasma and rumen metabolites in Mehraban lambs. Small Ruminant Research, 90,, 170-173.
  9. Dalir-Naghadeh, B. & Rezaei, S. A. (2008). Assessmant of serum thyroid hormone concentrations in lambs with selenium deficiency myopathy.  American Journal of Veterinary Research, 69, 659-663
  10. Davis, P. A., McDowell, L. R., Wilkinson, N. S., Buergelt, C. D., Van Alstyne, R., Weldon, R. N., Marshall, T. T. & Matsuda-Fugisaki, E. Y. (2008). Comparative effects of various dietary levels of Se as sodium selenite or Se yeast on blood, wool, and tissue Se concentrations of wether sheep. Small Ruminant Research, 74, 149-158.
  11. Elamin, K. M., Dafalla, N. A., Abdel Atti, K. A. & Tameem Eldar, A. A. (2013). Effects of zinc supplementation on growth performance and some blood parameters of goat kids in Sudan. International Journal of Pure and Applied Biological Research and Sciences, 1, 1.
  12. Fadayifar, A. (2014). Effect of different sources of zinc on growth, some rumen and plasma metabolites of Mehraban male lambs. Ph.D. thesis. Faculty of Agriculture Bu-Ali Sina University, Iran.
  13. Fadayifar, A., Aliarabi, H., Tabatabaei, M. M., Zamani, P., Bahari, A. A., Maleki, M. & Dezfoulian, A. H. (2011). Improvement in lamb performance on barley based diet supplemented with zinc. Journal of Livestock Science, 144, 285-289.
  14. Faixova, Z., Faix, S., Leng, L., Vaczi, P., Makova, Z. & Szaboova, R. (2007). Haematological, blood and rumen chemistry changes in lambs following supplementation with Se-yeast. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 76, 3-8.
  15. Garg, A. K., Mudgal, V. & Dass, R. S. (2008). Effect of organic zinc supplemen-tation on growth, nutrient utilization and mineral profile in lambs. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 144, 82-96.
  16. Jia, W., Xiaoping, Z. H., Wei, Z. H., Jianbo, C. H., Cuihua, G. & Zhihai, J. (2009). Effects of source of supplemental zinc on performance, nutrient digestibility and plasma mineral profile in Cashmere goats.  Asian Australian Journal of Animal Science, 22, 1648-1653.
  17. Jia, W. B., Jia, Z. H., Zhang, W., Wang, R. L., Zhang, S. W. & Zhu, X. P. (2008). Effects of dietary zinc on performance, nutrient digestibility and plasma zinc status in Cashmere goats. Small Ruminant Research, 80, 68-72.
  18. Josef, K. & Ouml, H. (1999). The trace element selenium and the thyroid gland. Biochemie, 81, 527-533.
  19. Juniper, D. T., Phipps, R. H., Jones, A. K. & Bertin, G. (2006). Selenium supplementation of lactating dairy cows: effect on selenium concentration in blood, milk, urine and feces. Journal of Dairy Science, 89, 3544-3551.
  20. Kachuee, R., Moeini, M. M. & Souri, M. (2013). The effect of dietary organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on serum Se, Cu, Fe and Zn status during the late pregnancy in Merghoz goats and their kids Merghoz goats and their kids. Small Ruminant Research, 110, 20- 277.
  21. Kadim, I. T., Johnson, E. H., Mahgoub, O., Srikandakumar, A., Al-Ajmi, D., Ritchie, A., Annamalai, K. & Al-Halhali, A. S. (2003). Effect of low levels of dietary cobalt on apparent nutrient digestibility in Omani goats. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 109, 209-216.
  22. Kendall, N. R., Jackson, D. W., Mackenzie, A. M., Illingworth, D. V., Gill, I. M. & Telfer, S. B. (2001a). The effect of zinc, cobalt and selenium soluble glass bolus on the trace element status of extensively grazed sheep over winter. Animal Science, 73, 163-169.
  23. Kendall, N. R., Mackenzie, A. M. & Telfer, S. B. (2001b). The effect of a copper, cobalt and selenium soluble glass bolus given to grazing sheep. Livestock Production Science, 68, 31-39.
  24. Kendall, N. R., Mackenzie, A. M. & Telfer, S. B. (2012). The trace element and humoral immune response of lambs administered a zinc, cobalt and selenium soluble glass bolus. Livestock Science, 148, 81-86.
  25. Kojouri, G. A., Jahanabadi, S., Shakibaie, M., Ahadi, A. M. & Shahverdi, A. R. (2012). Effect of selenium supplementation with sodium selenite and selenium nanoparticles on iron homeostasis and transferrin gene expression in sheep: a preliminary study. Research in Veterinary Science, 93, 275-278.
  26. Kumar, M., Garg, A. K., Dass, R. S., Chaturvedi, V. K., Mudgal, V. & Varshney, V. P. (2009). Seleniumsupplementation influences growth performance, antioxidant status and immune response in lambs. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 153, 77-87.
  27. Kumar, N., Garg, A. K. & Mudgal, V. (2008). Effect of different levels of selenium supplementation ongrowthrate, nutrient utilization, blood metabolic profile, and immune response in lambs. Biological Trace Element Research, 126, S44-56.
  28. MacDonald, R. S. (2000). The role of zinc in growth and cell proliferation. Journal of Nutrition, 130, 1500-1508.
  29. Mburu, J. N., Kamau, J. M. Z. & Badamana, M. S. (1993). Changes in serum levels of vitamin B12, feed, live weight and haematological parameters in cobalt deficient small East African goats. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 63, 135-139.
  30. McDowell, L. R. (1992). Minerals in Animal and Human Nutrition. Academic, London.
  31. McDowell, L. R. (2003). Minerals in Animal and Human Nutrition. New York, Academic Press.
  32. Miller, W. J. (1970). Zinc nutrition of cattle. A review. Journal of Dairy Science, 53, 1123-1135.
  33. Mohri, M., Ehsani, A., Norouzian, M. A., Heidarpour, M. & Seifi, H. A. (2011). Parenteral selenium and vitamin E supplementation to lambs: hematology, serum biochemistry, performance, and relationship with other trace elements. Biological Trace Element Research, 139, 308-316.
  34. NRC (2007). National Research Council (Nutrient requirements of small ruminants: sheep, goats, cervids, and new world camelids. National Academy Press, Washington, DCC.
  35. NRC. (1985). Nutrient Requirements of Sheep. (5th ed). National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
  36. Pal, D. T., Gowda, N. K. S., Prasad, C. S., Amarnath, R., Bharadwaj, U., SureshBabu, G. & Sampath, K. T. (2010). Effect of copper and zinc-methionine supplementatio n on bioavailability, mineral status and tissue concentrations of copper and zinc in ewes. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 24, 89-94.
  37. Pechova, A., evcikova, L., Pavlata, L. & Dvorak, R. (2012). The effect of various forms of selenium supplied to pregnant goats on selected blood parameters and on the concentration of Se in urine and blood of kids at the time of weaning. Veterinarni Medicina, 57(8), 394–403.
  38. Puchala, R., Sahlu, T. & Davis, J. (1999). Effects of zinc-methionine on performance of Angora goats. Small Rumininant Research, 33, 1-8.
  39. Qin, S., Gao, J. & Huang, K. (2007). Effects of different selenium sources on tissue selenium concentrations, blood GSH-Px activities and plasma interleukin levels in finishing lambs. Biological Trace Element Research, 116, 91-102.
  40. Ramirez, B. E., Hernandez, C. E., Hernandez, C. L. M. & Tortora, P. J. L. (2004). Effect of parenteral supplement with sodium selenite on lamb mortality and hematic values of selenium. Agrociencia, 38, 43-51.
  41. Rimbach, G., Walter, A., Most, E. & Pallauf, J. (1998). Effect of microbial phytase on zinc bioavailability and cadmium and lead accumulation in growing rats. Food and Chmical Toxicology, 36, 7-122.
  42. SAS Institute. (2004). User’s Guide. Version 9.1: Statistics. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
  43. Shi, L., Xun, W., Yue, W., Zhang, C., Ren, Y., Shi, L., Wang, Q., Yang, R. & Lei, F. (2011). Effect of sodium selenite, Se-yeast and nano-elemental selenium ongrowthperformance, Se concentration and antioxidant status ingrowing male goats. Small Ruminant Research, 96, 49-52.
  44. Suttle, N. F. (2010). Mineral Nutrition of Livestock (4th ed). CAB International, Oxford, UK.
  45. Tiffany, M. E. & Spears, J. W. (2005). Differential responses to dietary cobalt in finishing steers fed corn vs. barley-base diets. Journal of Animal Science, 83, 2580-2589.
  46. Tomlinson, D. & Socha, M. (2003). More cobalt for mature cows?. Feed. Int., 8, 20-22.
  47. Underwood, E. J. & Suttle, N. F. (1999). The mineral nutrition of livestock. CAB international, Wallingford, U.K.
  48. Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B. & Lewis, B. A. (1991). Methods of dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3587.
  49. Vignola, G., Lambertini, L., Mazzone, G., Giammarco, M., Tassinari, M., Martelli, G. & Bertin, G. (2009). Effects of selenium source and level of supplementation on the performance and meat quality of lambs. Meat Science, 81, 678-685.
  50. Wang, R. L., Kong, X. H., Zhang, Y. Z., Zhu, X. P. & Narenbatu, Z. H. (2007). Influence of dietary cobalt on performance, nutrient digestibility and plasma metabolites in lambs. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 135, 346-352.
  51. Zaboli, Kh., Aliarabi, H., Tabatabaei, M. M., Bahari, A. A. & Zareighane, Z. (2013). Effect of zinc oxide nano particle and zinc oxide on performance and some blood parameters in male Markhoz goat kids. Animal Production Research, 2, 29-41.