Physical characteristics, chemical composition and protein fractions of Iran sugar beet pulps compared with tabular values of Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran


The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical characteristics, chemical composition and protein fractions of sugar beet pulp produced in Iran and comparing them with the tabular values of Cornell net Carbohydrate and Protein System. A total of 39 samples of 13 different sugar factories were sampled from Iran-wide. Particle size distributions of samples were determined using the Penn State Particle Separator. Results showed that collected samples of sugar beet pulp had significantly (P < 0.01) greater CP (10.6 vs. 9.8) and EE (0.90 vs. .60) concentrations and lesser OM (92.9 vs. 94.7) and NDF (40.6 vs. 44.6) contents compared to the tabular values. Furthermore, sugar beet pulp, based on CP%, had greater soluble protein (39.2 vs. 26.5), A fraction (35.6 vs. 25.5), B1 fraction (3.6 vs. 1.0) and lesser B2 fraction (11.7 vs. 20.4) and B3 fraction (37.2 vs. 41.8) than the tabular values (P < 0.01). Accordingly, only 25 and 10% of collected samples had an equal value to the tabular values in terms of CP and NDF concentrations, respectively. Therefore, it is highly recommended that beet pulp is analyzed before balancing rations by nutrition consultants and/or dairy producers or average values resulted from this research are used at least in order to have more balanced diets.


  2. Alamouti, A. A., Alikhani, M., Ghorbani, G. R. & Zebeli, Q. (2009). Effects of inclusion of neutral detergent soluble fibre sources in diets varying in forage particle size on feed intake, digestive processes, and performance of mid-lactation Holstein cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 154, 9-23.
  3. AOAC International. (2002). Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. 1. 17th ed. AOAC International, Arlington, VA.
  4. ASAE (American National Standards Institute). (1995). Method of Determining and Expressing Fineness of Feed Material by Sieving. ASAE Standards 1995. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI, p. 461.
  5. Bhatti, S. A. & Firkins, J. L. (1995). Kinetics of hydration and functional specific gravi fibrous feed by-products. Journal of Animal Science, 73, 1449-1458.
  6. Kargar, S., Ghorbani, G.R., Alikhani, M., Khorvash, M., Rashidi, L. & Schingoethe, D.J. (2012). Lactational performance and milk fatty acid profile of Holstein cows in response to dietary fat supplements and forage: concentrate ratio. Livestock Science, 150, 274-283.
  7. Kleinschmit, D. H., Anderson, J. L., Schingoethe, D. J., Kalscheur K. F. & Hippen, A. R. (2007). Ruminal and intestinal degradability of distillers grains plus solubles varies by source. Journal of Dairy Science,90, 2909-2918.
  8. Kononoff, P. J., Heinrichs, A. J. & Buckmaster, D. R. (2003). Modification of the penn state forage and total mixed ration particle separator and the effects of moisture content on its measurements. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 1858-1863.
  9. Krishnamoorthy, U., Muscato, T. V., Sniffen, C. J. & Van Soest, P. J. (1982). Nitrogen fractions in selected feedstuffs. Journal of Dairy Science, 65, 217-255. .
  10. Lammers, B. P., Buckmaster, D. R. & Heinrichs, A. J. (1996). A simple method for the analysis of particle sizes of forage and total mixed rations. Journal of Dairy Science,79, 922-928.
  11. Licitra, G., Hernandez, T. M. & VanSoest, P. J. (1996). Standardization of procedures for nitrogen  fractionation of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 57, 347-358.
  12. Macleod, G. K., Droppo, T. E.,  Grievei, D. G., Barneyi, D. J. & Rafalowski, W. (1985). Feeding value of wet corn gluten feed for lactating dairy cows. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 65, 125-134.
  13. Marais, J. P. & Evenwell, T. K. (1983). The use of trichloroacetic acid as precipitant for the determination of “true protein” in animal feeds. South African Journal of Animimal Science, 13, 138-139. 
  14. Marounek, M., Bartos, S. & Brezina, P. (1985). Factors influencing the production of volatile fatty acids from hemicellulose, pectin and starch by mixed culture of rumen microorganisms. Zeitschrift für Tierphysiologie Tierernährung und Futtermittelkunde, 53, 50-58.
  15. Mowrey, A. & Spain, J. N. (1999). Results of a nationwide survey to determine feedstuffs fed to lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 82, 445-451.
  16. NRC. (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC. Pp: 283-289.
  17. Sniffen, C. J., O'Connor, J. D., V. Soest, P. J., Fox, D. G. & Russell, J. B. (1992). A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: Ii. Carbohydrate and protein availability. Journal of Animal Science, 70, 3562-3577.
  18. Tabatabaie, M., Rouzbahan, Y. & Ghorbani, G. (2011). Determination of protein fractions of some common feeds in Iran by the method of Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system. Iranian Journal of Animal Science, 2, 115-123. (in Farsi)
  19. Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B. & Lewis, B. A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3597.