Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 M. Sc. Graduate, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156–83111, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156–83111, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156–83111, Iran

4 Ph.D. Student of Animal Science, College of Agriculture Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran

Abstract

The aim of this study was to consider reproductive performance parameters and blood progesterone concentration changes in high-producing dairy cows (39±2 kg per day) after artificial insemination, in summer and winter. 270 heads of Holstein dairy cattle were choose in three big dairy farms, and blood samples were collected at days seven, ten and fourteen after artificial insemination. Temperature-humidity index was calculated according to one proposed formula (Dikmen and Hansen, 2009). The results showed that the maximum temperature–humidity index(THI) was 77.35 and 57.47 in summer and winter respectively. Pregnancy rates in cows inseminated during the winter months was significantly higher (p<0.01) than cows inseminated during the summer, and the effects of lactation on conception rate was significant in both seasons (p<0.01). Open days (101.18 vs. 165.07) and number of services per conception (2.05 vs. 3/48) in the winter were significantly lower than cows inseminated during the summer (p<0.01). In day 14 after insemination, blood serum progesterone concentration in cows inseminated in the winter was significantly higher (p<0.01) than summer. Results of this study showed that summer heat stress has significantly affects reproductive performance of dairy cows in central of Iran.

Keywords

  1. Ahmad, N.S., Beam, W., Butler, W.R., Deaver, D.R., Duby, R.T., Elder, D.R., Fortune, J.E., Griel, L.C., Jones, L.S., Milvae, R.A., Pate, J.L., Revah, I., Schreiber, D.T., Townson, D.H., Tsang, P.C.W. & Inskeep, E.K. )1996(. Relationship of fertility to patterns of ovarian follicular development and associated hormonal profiles in dairy cows and heifers. Journal of Animal Science, 7(4), 1943-1952.
  2. Cartmill, J.A., El-Zarkouny, S.Z., Hensley, B.A., Rozell, T.G., Smith, J.F. & Stevenson, J.S. (2001(. An alternative AI breeding protocol for dairy cows exposed to elevated ambient temperature before or after calving or both. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 799-806.
  3. Chebel, R.C., Santos, J.E.P., Reynolds, J.P., Cerri, R.L.A., Juchem, S.O. & Overton, M. (2004(. Factor affecting conception rate after artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows. Animal Reproduction Science, 84, 239-255.
  4. Collier, R.J., Dahl, G.E. & Vandal, M. J. (2006(. Major advances associated with environmental effects on dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 89, 1244-1253.
  5. DeRensis, F. & Scaramuzzi, R.J. (2003(. Heat stress and seasonal effects on reproduction in the dairy cow-a review. Theriogenology, 60, 1139-1151.
  6. Dikmen, S. & Hansen, P.J. )2009(. Is the temperature-humidity index the best indicator of heat stress in lactating dairy cows in a subtropical environment?, Journal  Dairy Science, 92, 109-116.
  7. Garcı´a-Ispierto, I., Lo´pez-Gatius, F., Bech-Sabat, G., Santolaria, P., Ya´niz, J.L., Nogareda, C., De Rensis, F. & Lo´pez-Be´jar, M. (2007(. Climate factors affecting conception rate of high producing dairy cows in northeastern Spain. Theriogenology, 67, 1379-1385.
  8. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N., Mohit, A. and Azad, N. (2013(. Effect of temperature-humidity index on productive and reproductive performances of Iranian Holstein cows. Iranian Journal Vetenry Research, 14(2), 106-112.
  9. Guzeloglu, A., Ambrose, J.D., Kassa, T., Diaz, T., Thatcher, M.J. & Thatcher, W.W. (2001(. Long term follicular dynamics and biochemical characteristics of dominant follicles in dairy cows subjected to acute heat stress. Animal Reproduction Science, 66, 15-34.
  10. Hansen, P.J. (2007(. Exploitation of genetic and physiological determinants of embryonic resistance to elevated temperature to improve embryonic survival in dairy cattle during heat stress. Theriogenology, 68, 242-249.
  11. Huang, C., Tsuruta, S., Bertrand, J.K., Misztal, I., Lawlor, T.J. & Clay, J.S. )2008(. Environmental effects on conception rates of Holsteins in New York and Georgia. Journal Dairy Science, 91, 818-825.
  12. Howell, J.L., Fuquay, J.W. & Smith, A.E. (1994(. Corpus luteum growth and function in lactating Holstein cows during spring and summer. Journal Dairy Science, 77, 735-739.
  13. Inskeep, E.K. & Dailey, R.A. (2010(. Maximizing embryonic and early fetal survival in dairy cattle. WCDS Adv. Dairy Technological, 22, 51-69.
  14. Jonsson, N.N., McGowan, M.R., McGuigan, K., Davison, T.M., Hussain, A.M. & Kafi, M. )1997(. Relationship among calving season, heat load, energy balance and postpartum ovulation of dairy cows in a subtropical environment. Animal Reproduction Science, 47, 315-326.
  15. Lopes, A.S., Butler, S.T., Gilbert, R.O., & Butler, W.R. (2007). Relationship of pre-ovulatory follicle size, estradiol concentrations and season to pregnancy outcome in dairy cows. Animal Reproduction Science, 99(1), 34-43.
  16. Mader, T.L., Holt, S.M., Halen, G.L., Davis, M.S. & Spiers, D.E. (2002(. Feeding strategies for managing heat load in feedlot cattle. Journal Animal Science, 80, 2373-2382.
  17. Nabenishi, H., Ohta, H., Nishimoto, T., Morita, T., Ashizawa, K. & Tsuzuki, Y. )2011(. Effect of the temperature-humidity index on body temperature and conception rate of lactating dairy cows in southwestern Japan. Journal Reproduction, 57, 450-456.
  18. Pennington, J.A., Albright, J.L., Diekman, M.A. & Callahan, C.J. (1985(. Sexual activity of Holstein cows. seasonal effects. Journal Dairy Science, 68, 3023-3030.
  19. Ray, D.E., Halbach, T.J. & Armstrong, D.V. (1992(. Season and lactation number effects on milk production and reproduction in dairy cattle in Arizona. Journal Dairy Science, 75, 2976-2983.
  20. Rivera, R.M. & Hansen, P.J. )2001(. Development of cultured bovine embryos after exposure to high temperatures in the physiological range. Reproduction Journal, 121, 107-115.
  21. Roche, J.F. & Diskin, M.G. )2001(. Resumption of reproductive activity in the early post-partum period of cows. P 133-145, In: M.G. Diskin (ed), Fertility in the high-producing dairy cow, BSAS Edinburgh: Occasional Publication.
  22. Rosenberg, M., Folman, Y., Herz, Z., Flamenbaum, I., Berman, A. & Kaim, M. (1982(. Effect of climatic conditions on peripheral concentration of LH, progesterone and oestradiol-17beta in high milk yield cows. Journal Reproduction Fertility, 66, 139-146.
  23. Ryan, D.P., Prochard, J.F., Kopel, E. & Godke, R.A. (1993(. Comparing early embryo mortality in dairy cows during hot and cold season of the year. Theriogenology, 39, 719-737.
  24. Sartori, R., Sartor-Bergfelt, R., Mertens, S.A., Guenther, J.N., Parrish, J.J. & Wiltbank, M.C. (2002(. Fertilization and early embryonic development in heifers and lactating cows in summer and lactating and dry cows in winter. Journal Dairy Science, 85, 2803-2812.
  25. Washburn, S.P., Silvia, W.J., Brown, C.H., McDaniel, B.T. & McAllister, A.J. (2002(. Trends in reproductive performance in southeastern Holstein and Jersey DHI herds. Journal Dairy Science, 85, 244-251.
  26. Wilson, S.J., Kirby, C.J., Koeningsfield, A.T., Keisler, D.H. & Lucy, M.C. (1998(. Effect of controlled heat stress on ovarian function of dairy cattle. 2. Heifers. Journal Dairy Science, 81, 2132-2138.
  27. Younas, M., Fuquay, J.W., Smith, A.E. & Moore, A.B. (1993(. Estrus and endocrine responses of lactating Holsteins to forced ventilation during summer. Journal Dairy Science, 76, 430-434.