Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Graduated, Department of Animal Science, Agricultural Faculty, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, Agricultural Faculty, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Medicinal Plants Research Center, Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR, Karaj, Iran


In this research to investigate of the effect of tannin`s type and level on rumenal degradation of soybean meal (SBM) and canola meal (CM), two experiments have be done. At first experiment supplements were treated by semi-pure tannin of pomegranate-pistachio (PP), in different levels (0, 10 and 15 % of DM for SBM and 0, 5 and 10% of DM for CM). In second experiment, these supplements were treated by (PP), pomegranate-tea (PT) and sole pomegranate (P) at same levels (10% of DM).  The effects of these treatments on protein fractioning of treated and untreated SMB and CM was determined by, CNCPS system, in comparison with fish meal (FM) and corn gluten meal (CGM), as a sources of bypass protein. According to results, treated SBM by PP 10% (SBM-PP) and treated CM by PP5% could increase bypass protein fraction in comparison with FM and CGM. So it can be concluded that these treatments, could be used in reminant diet to provide by pass protein, but further research is necessary to investigate in vivo effects of these treatments.


  1. Aerts, R. J., Barry, T. N. & McNabb, W.C. (1999). Polyphenols and agriculture: beneficial effects of proanthocyanidins in forages. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment,75, 1-12.
  2. Alipour, D. & Rouzbehan, Y. (2010). Effects of several levels of extracted tannin from grape pomace on intestinal digestibility of soybean meal. Livestock Science, 128, 87-91.
  3. Alzueta, C., Caballero, R., Rebole, A., Trevino, J. & Gil, A. (2001). Crude protein fractions in common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) fresh forage during pod filling. Journal of Animal Science, 79, 2449-2455.
  5. AOAC. (2000). In: Horwotz, W. (Ed.), Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International, 17th Edition, Vols.1 and 2. AOAC International, Gaitherburg, MD, USA.
  6. Barry, T. N. & McNabb, W. C. (1999). The implications of condensed tannins on the nutritive value of temperate forages fed to ruminants. British Journal of Nutrition, 81, 263-272.
  7. Erasmus, L. J., Botha, P. M., Cruywagen, C. W. & Meissner, H. H. (1994). Amino Acid Profile and Intestinal Digestibility in Dairy Cows of Rumen-Undegradable Protein from Various Feedstuffs. Journal of dairy science, 77, 541-551.
  8. Faldet, M. & Satter, L. (1991). Feeding heat-treated full fat soybeans to cows in early lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3047-3054.
  9. Frazier, R.A., Deaville, E.R., Green, R. J., Stringano, E., Willoughby, I., Plant, J. & Mueller-Harvey, I. (2010). Interactions of tea tannins and condensed tannins with proteins. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 51, 490-495.
  10. Frutos, P., Hervás, G., Giráldez, F. J., Fernández Gutiérrez, M. & Mantecón, Á. R. (2000). Digestive utilization of quebracho-treated soya bean meals in sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science, 134, 101-108.
  11. González, S., Pabón, M.L. & Carulla, J. (2002). Effects of tannins on in vitro ammonia release and dry matter degradation of soybean meal. Archivos latinoamericanos de producción animal, 10(2), 97-101.
  12. Khorasani, G. R., Robinson, P. H. & Kennelly, J. J. (1993). Effects of canola meal treated with acetic acid on ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 76, 1607-1616.
  13. Li, Y.G., Tanner, G.J. & Larkin, P.J. (1996). The DMACA-HCI protocol and the threshold proanthocyanidin content for bloat safety in forage legumes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 70, 89-101.
  14. Licitra, G., Hernandez, T. M. & Van Soest, P. J. (1996). Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 57, 347-358.
  15. Makkar, H.P.S.  (2000).  Quantification  of  tannins  in  tree  foliage:  A  laboratory  manual  for  the FAO/IAEA  Co-ordinated  research  project  on  ëUse  of  nuclear  and  related  techniques  to  develop  simple tannin  assays  for  predicting  and  improving  the  safety  and  efficiency  of  feeding  ruminants  on tanniniferous tree foliage'. Vienna, Austria: IAEA.
  16. Makkar, H.P.S. (2003). Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to Tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds. (reveiw). Small Ruminant Research, 49, 241-256.
  17. Makkar, H.P.S., Dawra, R.K. & Singh, B. (1988). Changes in tannincontent. polymerization and protein- precipitation capacity in oak (Qurercus rncana) leaves with maturity. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 44, 301-307.
  18. Martinez, T.F., Moyano, F.J., Diaz, M., Barroso, F.G. & Alarcon, F.J.  (2005). Use of tannic acid to protect barley meal against ruminal degradation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85, 1371-1378.
  19. Mezzomo, R., Paulino, P., Detmann, E., Valadares Filho, S., Paulino, M., Monnerat, J., Duarte, M., Silva, L. & Moura, L. (2011). Influence of condensed tannin on intake, digestibility, and efficiency of protein utilization in beef steers fed high concentrate diet. Livestock Science, 141, 1-11.
  20. Min, B.R., Barry, T.N., Attwood, G.T. & McNabb, W.C.  (2003). The effect of condensed tannins on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed fresh temperate forages: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 106, 3-19.
  21. Moshtaghi Nia, S.A. & Ingalls, J.R. (1995). Influence of moist heat treatment on ruminal and intestinal disappearance of amino acids from canola meal. Journal of Dairy Science, 78, 1552-1560.
  22. Reddy, P., Morrill, J. & Nagaraja, T. (1994). Release of free fatty acids from raw of processed soybeans and subsequent effects on fiber digestibilities. Journal of Dairy Science, 77, 3410-3416.
  23. Reed, J.D. (1995). Nutritional toxicology of tannins and related polyphenols in forage legumes. Journal of Animal Science, 1516-1528.
  24. SAS. (2002). Version9.1 SAS/STAT user`s guide. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, Cary, NC, USA.
  25. Sniffen, C.J., O'Connor, J.D., Van Soest, P.J., Fox, D.G.& Russell, J.B. (1992). A Net Carbohydrate and Protein System for Evaluating Cattle Diets: II. Carbohydrate and Protein Availability. Journal of Animal Science, 70, 3562-3577.
  26. Van Soest, P.J., Robinson, J.B. & Lewis, B.A. (1991). Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3597.
  27. Waghorn, G.C. (2008). Beneficial and detrimental effects of dietary condensed tannins for sustainable sheep and goat production-progress and challenges. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 147, 116-139.
  28. Waghorn, G.C., Shelton, I.D., McNabb, W.C. & McCutcheon, S.N. (1994). Effects of condensed tannin in Lotus pedunculatus on nutritive value for sheep. 2. Nitrogenous aspects. The Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge), 123, 109-119.