Document Type : Research Paper
Ph.D. Student, Department of Animal Sciences, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
In this experiment, randomized complete block design with four replications was used for evaluating of the effect of three feeding methods including: without feed restriction (control group), 6 hours feed restriction from 7 to 21 days and 4 hours from 22 to 28 days, 6 hours feed restriction from 7 to 14 days and 4 hours from 15 to 21 days on performance and ascites prevention of Arian male broiler chickens in six weeks. Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate and the index of production efficiency were determined during the experiment. Hematocrit and blood parameters were measured at 35 days of age. Carcass characteristics and the right ventricle weight per total ventricle weight (RV:TV) ratios were determined and compared. Feed conversion ratio and production index was improved by feed restriction from 7-21 days (P<0.05) at 42 days. With applying feed restriction ascites mortality was reduced (P<0.05). Applied feed restriction methods on the amount of hemoglobin, red blood cells and hematocrit had no significant effect, but increased levels of corticosterone (P<0.05). Although T3 hormone was not affected by feed restriction but T4 was increased by feed restriction from 7 to 21 days (P<0.05). In addition, T3 to T4 ratios was reduced by feed restriction (P<0.05).The results of this experiment indicated that, 6 hours feed restriction from 7 to 21 days and 4 hours from 22 to 28 days had the lowest ascites mortality and increased body weight insignificantly.
- Acar, N., Sizemore, F., Leach, G., Wideman, R., Owen, R. & Barbato, G. (1995). Growth of broiler chickens in response to feed restriction regimens to reduce ascites. Poultry Science, 74, 833-843.
- Butzen, F., Ribeiro, A., Vieira, M., Kessler, A., Dadalt, J. & Della, M. (2013). Early feed restriction in broilers. I–Performance, body fraction weights, and meat quality. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 22, 251-259.
- Buys, N., Dewil, E., Gonzales, E. & Decuypere, E. (1998). Different CO2 levels during incubation interact with hatching time and ascites susceptibility in two broiler lines selected for different growth rate. Avian Pathology, 27, 605-612.
- Camacho, M., Suarez, M., Herrera, J., Cuca, J. & Garcia-Bojalil, C. (2004). Effect of age of feed restriction and microelement supplementation to control ascites on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. Poultry science, 83, 526-532.
- Dastar, B., Shams sharg, M., Zerehdaran, S. & Mohebedini, H. (2013). Evaluate function and incidence of of ascites in broiler chickens in response to feed restriction and nutritional programs. Journal of Animal Science of Iran research, 5, 268-274.
- Fanooci, M. & Torki, M. (2010). Effects of qualitative dietary restriction on performance, carcass characteristics, white blood cell count and humoral immune response of broiler chicks. Global Veterinaria, 4, 277-282.
- Fontana, E., Weaver, W., Watkins, B. & Denbow, D. (1992). Effect of early feed restriction on growth, feed conversion, and mortality in broiler chickens. Poultry science, 71, 1296-1305.
- Gonzales, E., Buyse, J., Loddi, M., Takita, T., Buys, N. & Decuypere, E. (1998). Performance, incidence of metabolic disturbances and endocrine variables of food-restricted male broiler chickens. British poultry science, 39, 671-678.
- Hangalapura, B., Nieuwland, M., Reilingh, G. D. V., Buyse, J., Van Den Brand, H., Kemp, B. & Parmentier, H. (2005). Severe feed restriction enhances innate immunity but suppresses cellular immunity in chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses. Poultry science, 84, 1520-1529.
- Hassanzadeh Ladmekhi, M., (1999). Review on the occurrence of ascites syndrome in broilers. Journal of Tehran University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 54, 63-66.
- Julian, R.J. (1993). Ascites in poultry. Avian pathology, 22(3): p. 419-454.
- Luger, D., Shinder, D., Wolfenson, D. & Yahav, S. (2003). Erythropoiesis regulation during the development of ascites syndrome in broiler chickens: A possible role of corticosterone. Journal of animal science, 81, 784-790.
- Luger, D., Shinder, D., Rzepakovsky, V., Rusal, M. & Yahav, S. (2001). Association between weight gain, blood parameters, and thyroid hormones and the development of ascites syndrome in broiler chickens. Poultry science, 80, 965-971.
- Mahmood, S., Mehmood, S., Ahmad, F., Masood, A. & Kausar, R. (2007). Effects of feed restriction during starter phase on subsequent growth performance, dressing percentage, relative organ weights and immune response of broilers. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 27, 137.
- NRC. (1994). Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th rev. ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
- Onbaşılar, E., Yalçın, S., Torlak, E. & Özdemir, P. (2009). Effects of early feed restriction on live performance, carcass characteristics, meat and liver composition, some blood parameters, heterophil-lymphocyte ratio, antibody production and tonic immobility duration. Tropical animal health and production, 41, 1513-1519.
- Özkan, S., Takma, C., Yahav, S., Söğüt, B., Türkmut, L., Erturun, H. & Cahaner, A. (2010). The effects of feed restriction and ambient temperature on growth and ascites mortality of broilers reared at high altitude. Poultry science, 89, 974-985.
- Özkan, S., Plavnik, I. & Yahav, S. (2006). Effects of early feed restriction on performance and ascites development in broiler chickens subsequently raised at low ambient temperature. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 15, 9-19.
- Plavnik, I. & Hurwitz, S. (1988). Early feed restriction in chicks: effect of age, duration, and sex. Poultry Science, 67, 384-390.
- Saber, N., Maheri-Sis, N., Shaddel-Telli, A., Hatefinezhad, K., Gorbani, A. & Yousefi, J. (2011). Effect of feed restriction on growth performance of broiler chickens. Annals of Biol Res, 2, 247-252.
- Saffar, A. & Khajali, F. (2010). Application of meal feeding and skip-a-day feeding with or without probiotics for broiler chickens grown at high-altitude to prevent ascites mortality. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 5, 13.
- SAS Institute. (2002). JMP: Statistics and Graphics Guide. Version 9. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
- Scheideler, S.E. & Baughman, G.R. (1993). Computerized early feed restriction programs for various strains of broilers. Poultry science, 72, 236-242.
- Shahir, M., Dilmagani, S. & Tzschentke, B. (2012). Early-age cold conditioning of broilers: effects of timing and temperature. British poultry science, 53, 538-544.
- Siegel, H., (1995). Stress, strains and resistance 1.
- Wijtten, P., Hangoor, E., Sparla, J. & Verstegen, M. (2010). Dietary amino acid levels and feed restriction affect small intestinal development, mortality, and weight gain of male broilers. Poultry science, 89, 1424-1439.
- Yousefi, K. (2013). The effect of amino acids levels and methods of feeding on performance, development of ascites, immune response and intestinal structure of Arian broilers. Ph.D. thesis Poultry Nutrition, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources Karaj. No. 88. (in Farsi)