Evaluating the effect of ‌Bacillus subtilis and Licheni ‌formis on performance of broiler breeder hens challenged with Salmonella enteritidis

Document Type : Research Paper


1 M. Sc. Student, Department of Animal Science, University College of Agriculture & Natural Recourses, University of Tehran, Karaj, Alborz, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Animal Science, University College of Agriculture & Natural Recourses, University of Tehran, Karaj, Alborz, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, Campus of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Tehran, Iran


This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis and Licheni formis on broiler breeder performance and gastrointestinal health of their progenies. A total of 336 broiler breeder hens (Cobb 500) from 22 to 32 weeks of age were used in a completely randomized design of 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with four treatments, each with seven replicates. Dietary treatments included: 1) basal diet without probiotic and without Salmonella enteritidis inclusion; 2) basal diet without probiotic and oral inclusion of 1×106 cfu/bird and 1×108 cfu/bird Salmonella enteritidis in 26 and 30 weeks of ege, respectively; 3) basal diet containing 0.4 gr/kg probiotic and without Salmonella enteritidis inclusion; 4) basal diet containing 0.4 gr/kg probiotic and oral inclusion of 1×106 cfu/bird and 1×108 cfu/bird  Salmonella enteritidis in 26 and 30 weeks of ege, respectively. The results showed that adding probiotic was increased fractional weight of yolk and liver (P<0.05). The number of large and small yellow follicles were decreased significantly in response to the challenge with Salmonella compared with the control. The results of this study did not show any benefit of adding probiotic on performance of broiler breeder hens contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis.


  1. Aghaii, A., Chaji, M., Mohammadabadi, T. & Sari, M. (2010). The effect of probiotic supplementation on production performance, egg quality and serum and egg chemical composition of lying hens. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9, 2774-2777.
  2. Awad, W. A., Ghareeb, K., Abdel-Raheem, S. & Böhm, J. (2009). Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic and synbiotic on growth performance, organ weights, and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 88, 49-56.
  3. Bozkurt, M., Küçükyilmaz, K., Ayhan, V., Çabuk, M. & Çatlı, A. U. (2011). Performance of layer or broiler breeder hens varies in response to different probiotic preparations. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 10, 162-169.
  4. Cobb-Vantress. (2013). Cobb 500 Breeder Management Supplement. Cobb Vantress, Siloam Springs. AR.
  5. Cox, N. A., Berrang, M. E. & Cason, J. A. (2000). Salmonella penetration of egg shells and proliferation in broiler hatching eggs- A review. Poultry Science, 79, 1571-1574.
  6. Davis, G. S. & Anderson, K. E. (2002). The effects of feeding the direct-fed microbial, primalac, on growth parameters and egg production in single comb white leghorn hens. Poultry Science, 81, 755-759.
  7. Fuller, R. (1989). Probiotics in man and animals. The Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 66, 365-378.
  8. Gantois, I., Ducatelle, R., Pasmans, F., Haesebrouck, F., Gast, R., Humphrey, T.J. & Van Immerseel, F. (2009). Mechanisms of egg contamination by Salmonella enteritidis. Federation of European Microbiological Societies Microbiology Reviews, 33, 718-738.
  9. Gilbert, A. B., Perry, M. M., Waddington, D. & Hardie, M. A. (1983). Role of atresia in establishing the follicular hierarchy in the ovary of the domestic hen (Gallus domesticus). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 69, 221-227.
  10. Gilliland, S. E., Nelson, C. R. & Maxwell, C. (1985). Assimilation of cholesterol by Lactobacillus acidophilus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 49, 377-381.
  11. Grimes, J. L., Rahimi, S., Oviedo, E., Sheldon, B. W. & Santos, F. B. O. (2008). Effects of a direct-fed microbial (primalac) on turkey poult performance and susceptibility to oral Salmonella challenge. Poultry Science, 87, 1464-1470.
  12. Hajati, H. & Hassanabadi, A. (2014). The effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotic and probiotic on performance, humoral immunity responses and egg hatchability in broiler breeders. Poultry Science Journal, 2, 1-13. (in Farsi)
  13. Higgins, J.P., Higgins, S.E., Vicente, J.L., Wolfenden, A.D., Tellez, G. & Hargis, B.M. (2007). Temporal effects of lactic acid bacteria probiotic culture on Salmonella in neonatal broilers. Poultry Science, 86, 1662-1666.
  14. Higgins, J.P., Higgins, S. E., Wolfenden, A.D., Henderson, S.N., Torres-Rodriguez, A., Vicente, J.L., Hargis, B.M. & Tellez, G. (2010). Effect of lactic acid bacteria probiotic culture treatment timing on Salmonella enteritidis in neonatal broilers. Poultry Science, 89, 243-247.
  15. Jeong, J.S. & Kim, I. H. (2014). Effect of Bacillus subtilis c-3102 spores as a probiotic feed supplement on growth performance, noxious gas emission, and intestinal microflora in broilers. Poultry Science, 93, 3097-3103.
  16. King’ori, A. M. (2011). Review of the factors that influence egg fertility and hatchabilty in poultry. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10, 483-492.
  17. Knap, I., Kehlet, A.B., Bennedsen, M., Mathis, G.F., Hofacre, C.L., Lumpkins, B.S., Jensen, M.M., Raun, M. & Lay, A. (2011). Bacillus subtilis (dsm17299) significantly reduces Salmonella in broilers. Poultry Science, 90, 1690-1694.
  18. Kozak, G.K., Boerlin, P., Janecko, N., Reid-Smith, R.J. & Jardine, C. (2009). Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from swine and wild small mammals in the proximity of swine farms and in natural environments in Ontario, Canada. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75, 559-566.
  19. Kurtoglu, V., Kurtoglu, F., Seker, E., Coskun, B., Balevi, T. & Polat, E.S. (2004). Effect of probiotic supplementation on laying hen diets on yield performance and serum and egg yolk cholesterol. Food Additives and Contaminants, 21, 817-823.
  20. Mahdavi, A. H., Rahmani, H. R. & Pourreza, J. (2005). Effect of probiotic supplements on egg quality and laying hen's performance. International Journal of Poultry Science, 4, 488- 492.
  21. Morshed, R. & Peighambari, S. M. (2010). Salmonella infections in poultry flocks in the vicinity of Tehran. International Journal of Veterinary Research, 4, 273- 276. (In Farsi)
  22. Nava, G. M., Bielke, L. R., Callaway, T. R. & Castaneda, M. P. (2005). Probiotic alternatives to reduce gastrointestinal infections: The poultry experience. Animal Health Research Reviews, 6, 105-118.
  23. Nurmi, E. & Rantala, M. (1973). New aspects of Salmonella infection in broiler production. Nature, 241, 210-211.
  24. O’dea, E. E., Fasenko, G. M., Allison, G. E., Korver, D. R., Tannock, G. W. & Guan, L. L. (2006). Investigating the effects of commercial probiotics on broiler chick quality and production efficiency. Poultry Science, 85, 1855-1863.
  25. Pinchasov, Y. & Noy, Y. (1993). Comparison of post‐hatch holding time and subsequent early performance of broiler chicks and turkey poults. British Poultry Science, 34, 111-120.
  26. Rahimi, S. & Khaksefidi, A. (2006). A comparison between the effects of a probiotic (bioplus 2b) and an antibiotic (virginiamycin) on the performance of broiler chickens under heat stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, 7, 23-28.
  27. Revolledo, L., Ferreira, C. S. A. & Ferreira, A. J. P. (2009). Prevention of Salmonella typhimurium colonization and organ invasion by combination treatment in broiler chicks. Poultry science, 88, 734- 743.
  28. Reyes, M. E., Salas, C. & Coon, C. N. (2012). Metabolizable energy requirements for broiler breeder in different environmental temperatures. International Journal of Poultry Science, 11, 453-461.
  29. SAS. (2002). User’s Guide: Statistics. Version 9.00. SAS Institute InC, Cary, NC.
  30. Smet, I., Hoorde, L., Woestyne, M., Christiaens, H. & Verstraete, W. (1995). Significance of bile salt hydrolytic activities of lactobacilli. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 79, 292- 301.
  31. Sultan, K. H. & Abdul-Rahman. S. Y. (2011). Effect of probiotic on some physiological parameters in broiler breeders. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10, 626- 628.
  32. Vicente, J. L., Torres-Rodriguez, A., Higgins, S. E., Pixley, C., Tellez, G., Donoghue, A. M. & Hargis, B. M. (2008). Effect of a selected lactobacillus spp.-based probiotic on Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis-infected broiler chicks. Avian Diseases 52, 143-146.
  33. Vilà, B., Fontgibell, A., Badiola, I., Esteve-Garcia, E., Jiménez, G., Castillo, M. & Brufau, J. (2009). Reduction of Salmonella enterica var. enteritidis colonization and invasion by Bacillus cereus var. toyoi inclusion in poultry feeds. Poultry Science, 88, 975-979.
  34. Zhang, Z. F. & Kim, I. H. (2013). Effects of probiotic supplementation in different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Journal of Animal Science, 91, 4781-4787.