Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting carcass traits and internal organs on chromosome two in Japanese quail

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph. D. Student, Department of Animal Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

3 Former M. Sc. Student, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

4 Ph. D. Student, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran


The aim of present research was to locate genomic loci (QTL) on chromosome 2. Itis associated with the carcass traits in Japanese quail. The F1 population was created by using reciprocal crosses between two strains of white birds (layer) and wild (broiler) birds. The F2 birds (422 birds) were derived by random mating of the F1 birds. All of the F2 birds were slaughtered at 35 days of age and recorded for carcass traits. Blood samples were collected at slaughtering time to genotype for four microsatellite markers on chromosome 2. Genotypic and phenotypic data were analyzed for QTL mapping with interval mapping method based on regression applying three different genetic models. A total number of 15 loci was found to be significantly associated with carcass traits. In the first model all traits with dominance effect were significant. The second model often had significant QTL with dominance and imprinting effects and all the traits were closest to the GUJ0084 marker. When it comes to the third model, most of the traits were significant in the female with dominance effect. Results of this study showed the role of Non-Mendelian inheritance (genomic imprinting) and pleiotropy as well as single gene effects in some traits.


  1. Aslam, M.L., Bastiaansen, JWM., Crooijmans, RPMA., Vereijken, A., Megens, H-J. & Groenen, M.A.M. (2011). Whole genome QTL mapping for growth, meat quality and breast meat yield traits in turkey. BMC Genetics, 12, 61.
  2. Ayatollahi-Mehrgardi, A. (2008). Divergent selection for growth and reproduction traits in Japanese quail. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Tehran. (in Farsi)
  3. Ayatollahi A. (2012) Divergent selection for four-week body weight in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica): response to selection and realized heritability. Journal of Livestock Science and Technologies, 1(1), 61-64.
  4. Baron, E.E., Moura, A.S.A.M.T., Ledur, M.C., Pinto, L.F.B., Boschiero, C., Ruy, D.C., Nones, K., Zanella, E.L., Rosa rio, M.F., Burt, D.W. & Coutinho, L.L. (1991). QTL for percentage of carcass and carcass parts in a broiler x layer cross. Animal Genetics, 1365-2052.2010.02105.
  5. Bassam, B.J., Caetano-Anollés, G. & Gresshoff, PM. (1991). Fast and sensitive silver staining of DNA in polyacrylamide gels. Analytical Biochemistry, 196, 80-83.
  6. Charati, H. & Esmailizadeh, A.K. (2013). Carcass traits and physical characteristics of eggs in Japanese quail as affected by genotype, sex and hatch. Journal of Livestock Science and Technologies, 2 (1), 59-64.
  7.  Churchill, GA. & Doerge, RW. (1994). Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping. Genetics, 138, 963-971.
  8. Dadpasand, M. (2010). Principles of animal breeding. (1st ed.), Shiraz University Publications. (In Farsi)
  9. Davison, F (Ed.), Kaspers, B (Ed.) & Karel, A. (Ed.) (2008) Avian Immunology. (1th ed.) Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier, ISBN: 978-0-12-370634-8.
  10. Dekkers, J. C. (2004). Commercial application of marker- and gene-assisted selection in livestock: Strategies and lessons. Journal of Animal Science, 82(E-Suppl.), E313–E328.
  11. De Koning, D J., Haley, C S., Windsor, D., Hocking, P M., Griffin, H., Morris, A., Vincent, J. & Burt, D W. (2004). Segregation of QTL for production traits in commercial meat-type chickens. Genetical research, 83 (3), 211-20.
  12. Esmailizadeh, A.K., Baghizadeh, A. & Ahmadizadeh, M. (2012). Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting bodyweight on chromosome 1 in a commercial strain of Japanese quail. Animal Production Science, 52, 64-68.
  13. Gil, A., Shula, B., Marc, F., Avigdor, C., Uri, L. & Jossi, H. (2008). QTLs detected in a multigenerational resource chicken population. The Journal of heredity, 99 (5), 528-38.
  14. Glick, B., Timothy, S., Chang, R. & Jaap, G. (1956). The bursa of fabricius and antibody production. Poultry Science, 35(1), 224-225.
  15. Glick, B. (1994). The bursa of fabricius: the evolution of a discovery. Poultry Science, 73(7):979-83.
  16. Haley, CS., Knott, SA. & Elsen, JM. (1994) Mapping quantitative trait loci in crosses between outbred lines using least squares. Genetics, 136, 1195-1207.
  17. Jabbari Ori, R., Esmailizadeh, AK ., Charati,H., Mohammadabadi, MR. & Sohrabi, SS. (2014). Identification of QTL for live weight and growth rate using DNA markers on chromosome 3 in an F2 population of Japanese quail. Molecular Biology Reports, 41, 1049-1057.
  18. Jenne D.G.J., Vereijken, A.L.J., Bovenhuis, H., Crooijmans, R.M.P.A., van der Poel, J.J. & Groenen, M. A.M. (2005). Confirmation of quantitative trait loci affecting fatness in chickens. Genetics Selection Evolution, 37, 215-228.
  19. Kayang, B.B., Inoue-Murayama, M., Nomura A., Kimura K., Takahashi H., Mizutani M. & Ito S. (2000). Fifty microsatellite markers for Japanese quail. The Journal of Heredity, 91, 502-5.
  20. Kayang, B. B., Fillon, V., Inoue-Murayama, M., Miwa, M., Leroux, S., Fève, K., Monvoisin, J. L., Pitel, F., Vignoles, M., Mouilhayrat, C., Beaumont, C., Ito, S. I., Minvielle F. & Vignal A. (2006). Integrated maps in quail (Coturnix japonica) confirm the high degree of synteny conservation with chicken (Gallus gallus) despite 35 million years of divergence. BMC Genomics, 7, 101.
  21. Khaldari, M., Pakdel, A., Mehrabani Yegane, H., Nejati Javaremi, A. & Berg P. (2010). Response to selection and genetic parameters of body and carcass weights in Japanese quail selected for 4 week body weight. Poultry Science, 89, 1834-1841.
  22. Lei, Z., Mai-Qing, Z., Ran-Ran, L., Jie, W., Dan, W., Yao-Dong, H., Yan-Fa, S., Peng, L., Li, L. & Gui-ping, Z. (2012). Genome-Wide Association of Thymus and Spleen Mass in Chicken. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 45(15), 3165-3175
  23. Liu, X., Li, H., Wang, S., Hu, X., Gao, Y., Wang, Q., Li, N., Wang, Y. & Zhang, H. (2007). Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting body weight and abdominal fat weight on chicken chromosome one. Poultry science, 86 (6), 1084-9.
  24. McElroy, J.P., Kim, J.J., Harry, D.E., Brown, S.R., Dekkers, JCM. & Lamont SJ. (2006). Identification of trait loci affecting white meat percentage and other growth and carcass traits in commercial broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 85, 593-605.
  25. Miller, S.A., Dykes, D.D. & Polesky, HF. (1988). A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells. Nucleic Acids Research, 16, 1215.
  26. Minvielle, F., Kayang, B., Inoue-Murayama, M., Miwa, M., Vignal, A., Gourichon, D., Neau, A., Monvoisin, J. & Ito, S. (2005) Microsatellite mapping of QTL affecting growth, feed consumption, egg production, tonic immobility and body temperature of Japanese quail. BMC Genomics 6, 87.
  27. Moradian, H., Esmailizadeh, A.K., Sohrabi, S.S. & Nasirifar, E. (2014a). Effect of reciprocal cross on growth related traits and carcass characteristics in an F2 intercross between two strains of Japanese quail. Animal Production Research, 2 (4), 61-68. (in Farsi)
  28. Moradian, H., Esmailizadeh, AK., Sohrabi, SS., Nasirifar, E., Askari, N., Mohammadabadi, MR. & Baghizadeh, A. (2014b). Genetic analysis of an F2 intercross between two strains of Japanese quail provided evidence for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass composition and internal organs. Molecular Biology Reports, 41, 4455-4462.
  29. Moradian, H., Esmailizadeh, A.K., Mohammadabadi, MR. & Sohrabi, SS. (2015). Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with weight and percentage of internal organs on chromosome 1 in Japanese quail. Agricultural Biotechnology, 6(4), 143-158. (in Farsi)
  30.  Navarro, P., Visscher, PM., Knott, S.A., Burt, D.W., Hocking, PM. & Haley, CS. (2005) Mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting organ weights and blood variablesin a broiler layer cross. British Poultry Science. 46(4):430-42.
  31. Park, H.B., Jacobsson, L., Wahlberg, P., Siegel, P.B. & Andersson, L. (2006). QTL analysis of body composition and metabolic traits in an intercross between chicken lines divergently selected for growth. Physiological Genomics, 25(2), 216-23
  32. Primmer, C.R., Raudsepp, T., Chowdhary, B.P., Møller, A.P. & Ellegren, H. (1997). Low frequency of microsatellites in the avian genome. Genome Research, 7, 471-82.
  33. Reik, W. & Walter, J. (2001). Genomic imprinting: paternal influence on the genome. Macmillan Magazines Ltd .Volume 2, January nature reviews.
  34. Rezvannejad E. (2014) Productive, reproductive performance and biochemical parameters of short-term divergently selected Japanese quail lines and their reciprocal crosses. Journal of Livestock Science and Technologies, 1 (2), 35-42.
  35. Schmid, M., Nanda, I. & Guttenbach, M. (2000). First report on chicken genes and chromosomes. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, 90, 169-218.
  36. Sohrabi, SS., Esmailizadeh, A.K., Baghizadeh, A., Moradian, H., Mohammadabadi, M.R., Askari, N. & Nasirifar, E. (2012). Quantitative trait loci underlying hatching weight and growth traits in an F2 intercross between two strains of Japanese quail. Animal Production Science, 2012, 52, 1012-1018.
  37. Sohrabi, SS., Esmailizadeh, AK., Mohammadabadi, MR. & Moradian, H. (2014). Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci underlying Kleiber ratio and identification of their mode of action in an F2 population of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Agricultural Biotechnology, 6(1), 111-122. (in Farsi)
  38. Vali, N., Edriss, MA & Rahmani HR. (2005) Genetic parameters of body and some carcass traits in two quail strains. International Journal of Poultry Science, 4(5), 296-300.
  39. Wakasugi, N. (1984). Japanese quail. In: Evolution of Domesticated Animals (Ed. by I.L. Mason), pp. 319–21. Longman, London.
  40. Zhan, A., Bao, Z., Lu, W., Hu, X., Peng, W., Wang & M., Hu, J. (2007). Development and characterization of 45 novel microsatellite markers for sea cucumber (apostichopus japonicus). Molecular Ecology, Notes 7, 1345-1348.
  41. Zhou, H., Deeb, N., Evock-Clover, CM., Ashwell, CM. & Lamont, SJ. (2006). Genome-wide linkage analysis to identify chromosomal regions affecting phenotypic traits in the chicken. II. Body composition. Poultry Science, 85, 1712-1721.