Document Type : Research Paper
M.Sc. Student, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
Associate Professor, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
Associate professor, Department of Food Hygiene and Public Health, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
Assistant Professor, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of thyme essential oil and powder in comparison to antibiotic on performance of meat type quails, in a completely randomized design with 6 treatments, 4 replicate. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet without any added compounds (control), 100mg virginiamycin/kg, 0.1 or 0.2% thyme powder and 100 or 200 mg thyme essential oil/kg. The measurement parameters included performance, meat quality, morphology and microbiology of intestine. Supplementing 0.1% powder thyme and virginiamycin increased body weight gain of quails at d 0 to 35. Thyme powder and essential oil caused reduction in thiobarbituric acid, Dripping Loss and Cooking Loss and increased water holding capacity. The highest counts of lactobacilli bacteria, belong to thyme treatment (except for 200 mg essential oil/kg) and the lowest of it has been seen in antibiotic ones and the lowest count of coliform bacteria belonged to antibiotic treatment. Maximum length and width of the villi and minimum depths of crypts was observed in thyme treatments (except for 200 mg essential oil/kg). In antibiotic treatment, crypt depth was significantly increased in addition to increase of length and width of the villi.
- Abd El-Hakim, A., Cherian, S. & Ali, M.N. (2009). Use of organic acid, herbs and their combination to improve the utilization of commercial low protein broiler diets. International Journal of Poultry Science, 8, 14-20.
- Amad, A.A., Manner, K., Wendler, K.R., Neumann, K. & Zentek, J. (2011). Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on growth performance and ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 90, 2811-2816.
- Amerah, A.M., Mathis, G. & Hofacre, C.L. (2012). Effect of xylanase and a blend of essential oils on performance and Salmonella colonization of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg. Poultry Science, 91, 943-947.
- Baurhoo, B., Phillip, L. & Ruiz-Feria, C.A. (2007). Effect of purified lignin and mannan oligosaccharides on intestinal integrity and microbial populations in the ceca and litter of broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 86, 1070-78.
- Benchaar, C., Calsamiglia, S., Chaves, A.V., Fraser, G.R., Colombatto, D., McAllister, T.A. & Beauchemin, K.A. (2008). Areview of plant derived essential oils in ruminant nutrition and production. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 145, 209-228.
- Bertrama, H.C., Andersena, H.J., Karlssona, A.H., Hornc, P., Hedegaardc, J., Norgaardb, L. & Engelsenb, S.B. (2003). Prediction of technological quality (cooking loss and Napole Yield) of pork based on fresh meat characteristics. Meat Science, 65, 707-712.
- Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in food: a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 94, 223- 253.
- Castellini, C., Mugnai, C. & Dal Bosco, A. (2002). Effect of organic production system on broiler carcass and meat quality. Meat Science, 60, 219-225.
- Christensen, L.B. (2003). Drip loss sampling in porcine m. longissimus dorsi. Meat Science, 63, 469-477.
- Cross, D.E., Mcdevith, R.M., Hillman, K. & Agamovic, T. (2007). The effect of herbs and their associated essential oils on performance, digestibilities gut microflora in chickens to 28d of age. British poultry Science, 4, 496-506.
- Gaggia, F., Mattarelli, P. & Biavati, B. (2010). Probiotics and prebiotics in animal feeding for safe food production. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 141, S15-S28.
- Garcia, V., Catala-Gregori, P., Hernandaz, F., Megias, M.D. & Madrid, J. (2007). Effect of formic acid and plant extracts on growth, nutrient digestibility, intestin mucosa morphology, and meat yield of broilers. Applied Poultry Research, 16, 555-562.
- Griggs, J.P. & Jacob, J.P. (2005). Alternatives to antibiotics for organic poultry production. Applied Poultry Research, 14,750–756.
- Gurdip, S., Sumitra, M., DeLampasona, M.P. & Cesar, A.N.C. (2007). A comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils, oleoresins and their constituents. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45, 1650-1661.
- Hashemipour, H., Kermanshahi, H., Golian, A. & Veldkamp, T. (2013). Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 92, 2059-2069.
- Hernandez, F., Madrid, J., Garcia, V., Orengo, J. & Megias, M.D. (2004). Influence of two plantsextracts on broiler performance, digestibility and digestive organ size. Poultry Science, 83, 169-174.
- Huange, B., Jingesheng, H., Xiaoquan, B., Hong, Z., Xincheng, Y. & Youwei, W. (2011). Antioxidant activity of bovine and porcine meat treated with extracts from edible lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) rhizome knot and leaf. Meat science, 87, 46- 53..
- Huff-Lonergan, E. & Lonergan, S.M. (2005). Mechanisms of water-holding capacity of meat: The role of postmortem biochemical and structural changes. Meat Science, 71(1), 194-204.
- Jamroz, D., Wiliczkiewicz, A., Wertelecki, T., Orda, J. & Skorupinska, J. (2005). Use of active substances of plant origin in chicken diets based on maize and locally grown cereals. British poultry Science, 46, 485-493.
- Jamroz, D., Weterlecki, T., Houszka, M. & Kamel, C. (2006). Influences of diet type on the inclusion of plant origin active substances on morphological and histochemical characteristics of the stomach and jejunum walls in chicken. Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 90, 255-268.
- 21. Jang, A., Liu, X.D., Shin, M.H., Lee, B.D., Lee, S.K., Lee, J.H. & Jo, C. (2008). Antioxidative Potential of Raw Breast Meat from Broiler Chicks Fed a Dietary Medicinal Herb Extract Mix. Poultry Science, 87, 2382-2389.
- Kamatou, G.P.P., Makunga, N.P., Ramogola, W.P.N. & Viljoen, A.M. (2008). South African Salvia species: a review of biological activities and phytochemistry. Ethnopharmacology, 119, 664-672.
- Khaksar, V., Krimpen, M., Hashemipour, H. & Pilevar, M. (2012). Effects of thyme essential oil on performance, some blood parameters and ileal microflora of japanese quail. Japan Poultry Science Association, 49, 106-110.
- Khaligh, F., Sadeghi, G., Karimi, A. & Vaziry, A. (2011). Evaluation of different medicinal plants blends in diets for broiler chickens. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5, 1971-1977.
- Lee, D.N., Lyu, S.R., Wang, R.C., Weng, C.F. & Chen, B.J. (2011). Exhibit differential functions of various antibiotic growth promoters in broiler growth, immune response and gastrointestinal physiology. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10 (3), 216-220.
- Li, Y.L. (1991). Culture Medium Manual (Changchun, China, Jilin Science and Technology Press).
- Luna, A., Lábaque, M.C., Zygadlo, J.A. & Marin, R.H. (2010). Effects of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on lipid oxidation in broiler meat. Poultry Science, 89, 366-370
- Marković, R., Šefer, D., Krstić, M. & Petrujkić, B. (2009). Effect of different growth promoters on broiler performance and gut morphology. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria, 41, 163-169.
- Mc, J.F. (1948). Histological and histochemical uses of periodic acid. Stain Technology, 23, 99-108.
- Miles, R.D., Butcher, G.C., Henry, P.R. & Littlell, R.C. (2006). Effect of antibiotic growth performance on broiler performance, intestinal growth parameters and quantitative morphology. Poultry Science, 85, 476-485.
- Ocak, N., Erener, G., Burak, F., Sungu, M., Altop, A. & Ozmen, A. (2008). Performance of broilers fed diets supplemented with dry peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) or thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) leaves as growth promoter source. Animal Sciences, 53, 169-175.
- Oliveira, M.C., Rodrigues, E.A., Marques, R.H., Gravena, R.A., Guandolini, G.C. & Moraes, V.M.B. (2008). Performance and morphology of intestinal mucosa of broilers fed mannanoligosaccharides and enzymes. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, 60(2), 442-448.
- Reiner, G.N., Labuckas, D.O. & Garcia, D.A. (2009). Lipophilicity of some GABAergic phenols and related compounds determined by HPLC and partition coefficients in different systems. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 49:686–691.
- Safaa, S. & Nafez, A. (2009). The effect of feeding of crushed Thyme (Thymus Vulgaris L) on growth, blood constituents, gastrointestinal tract and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Japan Poultry Science Association, 46, 100-104.
- Sarıçoban, C. & Tahsin Yilmaz, M. (2014). Effect of thyme/cumin essential oils and butylated hydroxyl anisole/butylated hydroxyl toluene on physicochemical properties and oxidative/microbial stability of chicken patties. Poultry Science, 93, 456-463.
- Si, W., Gong, J., Tsao, R., Zhou, T., Yu, H., Poppe, C., Johnson, R. & Du, Z. (2006). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and structurally related synthetic food additives towards selectd pathogenic and beneficial gut bacteria. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 100, 296-305.
- Tarladgis, B.G., Watts, B.M., Younatan, M.T. & Dudan, L.J. (1960). A distillation method for for the quantitative determination of malonaldehyde in rancid foods. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 37, 44-48.
- Toghyani, M., Tohid, M., Gheisari, A.A. & Tabeidian, S.A. (2010). Performance, immunity, serum biochemical and hematological parameters in broiler chicks fed dietary thyme as alternative for an antibiotic growth promoter. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(40), 6819-6825.
- Warris, P.D. (2000). Meat science. An introductory text. New York: CABI Publishing. Inc.
- Wei, A. & Shibamoto, T. (2007). Antioxidant activities and volatile constituents of various essential oils.. Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 737-742.
- Windisch, W., Schedle, K., Plitzner, C. & Kroismayr, A. (2008). Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. Animal Science, 86, El40-El48.
- Zaman, S. (2000). Plantes medicinales. Fourth edition, Ghoghnos Publishing. Tehran. (In Farsi)